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MDA5 is an essential intracellular sensor for several viruses, including picornaviruses, and elicits antiviral interferon (IFN) responses by recognizing viral dsRNAs. MDA5 has been implicated in autoimmunity. However, the mechanisms of how MDA5 contributes to autoimmunity remain unclear. Here we provide direct evidence that dysregulation of MDA5 caused(More)
Multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), a member of the ABC superfamily transporters, functions as an ATP-dependent efflux pump that extrudes cytotoxic drugs from the cells. Although glutathione has been considered to play an important role in the function of MRP, there is no convincing evidence that glutathione directly interacts with MRP. Here we(More)
P-glycoprotein can extrude a variety of structurally diverse, toxic xenobiotic compounds from cells. It is believed to be one of key molecules which can cause multidrug resistance in cancer. This paper deals with recent progress in P-glycoprotein research, especially in its structure, mechanisms for substrate recognition and transport. The review also(More)
A hybrid atomic force microscopy (AFM)-optical fluorescence microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating cellular morphologies and events. However, the slow data acquisition rates of the conventional AFM unit of the hybrid system limit the visualization of structural changes during cellular events. Therefore, high-speed AFM units equipped with an(More)
In eukaryotic cells, ribosome biogenesis occurs in the nucleolus, a membraneless nuclear compartment. Noticeably, the nucleolus is also involved in several nuclear functions, such as cell cycle regulation, non-ribosomal ribonucleoprotein complex assembly, aggresome formation and some virus assembly. The most intriguing question about the nucleolus is how(More)
The dynamics of the cell membrane and submembrane structures are closely linked, facilitating various cellular activities. Although cell surface research and cortical actin studies have shown independent mechanisms for the cell membrane and the actin network, it has been difficult to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the dynamics of these structures(More)
Amyloid β (Aβ) peptide, a causative agent of Alzheimer's disease, forms two types of aggregates: oligomers and fibrils. These aggregates induce inflammatory responses, such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production by microglia, which are macrophage-like cells located in the brain. In this study, we examined the effect of the two forms of Aβ aggregates on IL-1β(More)
Since the inception of atomic force microscopy (AFM) in 1986, the value of this technology for exploring the structure and biophysical properties of a variety of biological samples has been increasingly recognized. AFM provides the opportunity to both image samples at nanometer resolution and also measure the forces on the surface of the sample. Here, we(More)