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The purpose of the present experiment was to examine the effects of D-tartaric acid (TA) on intestinal drug absorption under both in situ and in vitro experimental conditions. In the in vitro diffusion chamber experiments, TA (10 mM) added to the mucosal side of rat colon significantly decreased rhodamine123 (Rho 123) transport from the serosal to mucosal(More)
It has been reported that inhibition of the P-glycoprotein (P-gp) results in the improved absorption of P-gp substrate in the intestinal tract. In fact, the increased permeability of P-gp substrate across the intestinal epithelium was observed following inhibition of P-gp in in vitro experiments. To develop the formulation containing P-gp inhibitor and P-gp(More)
Infection and inflammation suppress the expression and activity of several drug transporters in liver. In the intestine, P-glycoprotein (P-gp/MDR1), multidrug resistance-associated protein 2 (MRP2), and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) are important barriers to the absorption of many clinically important drugs. The expression and activity of these(More)
The dried cells of two strains of Vibrio parahaemolyticus were fractionated by extracting first with water and then with organic solvents. The hemolytic activity of the fractions was determined, and some of them were assayed for their effect in mice. The hemolytic agent present in the water-insoluble fraction was extractable in organic solvents such as 70%(More)
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