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The topographic effect on land surface reflectance is an important factor affecting quantitative analysis of remotely sensed data in mountainous regions. Different approaches have been developed to reduce topographical effects. Of the many methods, the Minnaert correction method is most frequently used for topographic correction, but a single global(More)
A reversible inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by complex I inhibition at the onset of reperfusion decreases injury in buffer-perfused hearts. Administration of acidic reperfusate for a brief period at reperfusion decreases cardiac injury. We asked if acidification treatment decreased cardiac injury during reperfusion by inhibiting complex I. Exposure(More)
In most cases, the successful application of gene therapy requires the development of vectors that can provide regulated control of therapeutic gene expression. We have reconstituted the Tet-On (tetracycline-regulated transgene expression) two-component system in a single lentiviral vector with insertion of a chicken chromatin insulator (cHS4) element(More)
Ubiquitous calpains (calpain I and II) are generally recognized as cytosolic proteins. Recently, mitochondrial localized calpain I (μ-calpain) has been identified. Activation of mito-μ-calpain cleaves apoptosis inducing factor (AIF), a flavoprotein located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space, in liver mitochondria, but not in brain mitochondria. We(More)
Descending nociceptive modulation from the supraspinal structures plays an important role in cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). Rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM) is a critical component of descending nociceptive facilitation circuitry, but so far the mechanisms are poorly known. In this study, we investigated the role of RVM glial activation in the(More)
The transient, reversible blockade of electron transport (BET) during ischemia or at the onset of reperfusion protects mitochondria and decreases cardiac injury. Apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) is located within the mitochondrial intermembrane space. A release of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nucleus triggers caspase-independent cell death. We(More)
BACKGROUND Mitochondria are critical to cardiac injury during reperfusion as a result of damage sustained during ischemia, including the loss of bcl-2. We asked if bcl-2 depletion not only leads to selective permeation of the outer mitochondrial membrane (MOMP) favoring cytochrome c release and programmed cell death, but also favors opening of the(More)
Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) is a transcription factor that contributes a crucial role in protection against ischemia (ISC)-reperfusion (REP) injury by driving expression of anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidant genes. STAT3 is also present in the mitochondria, where it modulates the activity of the electron transport chain (ETC) and(More)
Studies have shown that single-prolonged stress (SPS) can induce the apoptotic process in the amygdala. In the present study, we aimed to detect expression of phosphorylated p44/42 extracellular signal-regulated kinase (pERK1/2) and apoptosis-related Bax and Bcl-2 and apoptotic cell death in the amygdala region in SPS rats as well as the relation between(More)
The effects of intracerebroventricular (icv) agonists and antagonists of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid (AMPA) receptors on the general anesthesia of propofol were studied. A total of 144 Kunming mice, male and female with body mass of (22±3) g, were used. Part One of the Experiment: a total of 104(More)