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BACKGROUND AND AIMS Stem respiration of trees is a major, but poorly assessed component of the carbon balance of forests, and important for geo-chemistry. Measurements are required under naturally changing seasonal conditions in different years. Therefore, intra- and inter-annual carbon fluxes of stems in forests were measured continuously from April to(More)
Soil temperature is a main factor limiting root growth in the boreal forest. To simulate the possible soil-warming effect of future climate change, 5-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment rooms. The seedlings were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C(More)
Impacts of elevated temperature and carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) on wood properties of 15-year-old Scots pines (Pinus sylvestris L.) grown under conditions of low nitrogen supply were investigated in open-top chambers. The treatments consisted of (i) ambient temperature and ambient [CO2] (AT+AC), (ii) ambient temperature and elevated [CO2] (AT+EC),(More)
We determined effects of long-term elevation of carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) and temperature on growth, respiration and carbohydrate concentration in needles of field-grown Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees during the needle expansion period. Sixteen 20-year-old Scots pine trees were individually enclosed in closed-top, environmentally(More)
Electrical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was applied to stems of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in a provenance field trial during frost hardening to find an EIS parameter for assessing frost hardiness (FH) without a controlled freezing test. The FH of stems and needles assessed by controlled freezing tests was compared with the equivalent circuit EIS(More)
Growth and wood properties of 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees were studied for 6 years in 16 closed chambers providing a factorial combination of two temperature regimes (ambient and elevated) and two carbon dioxide concentrations ([CO2]) (ambient and twice ambient). The elevation of temperature corresponded to the predicted effect at the(More)
Sixteen 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees growing in the field were enclosed in environment-controlled chambers that for 4 years maintained: (1) ambient conditions (CON); (2) elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration [CO2] (ambient + 350 micromol mol-1; EC); (3) elevated temperature (ambient + 2-3 degrees C; ET); or (4) elevated(More)
Stem respiration in 20-year-old Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) trees was examined following 5 years of exposure to ambient conditions (CON), elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) (ambient + 350 micromol mol(-1), (EC)), elevated temperature (ambient + 2-6 degrees C, (ET)) or a combination of elevated [CO2] and elevated temperature(More)
Plant boron (B) status is known to affect plant secondary metabolites but most studies have been short termed and in controlled environments. Copper (Cu) effects on phenolics are better known at toxic than at low levels. Here, the chemistry of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) needles was studied 20 years after fertilisation with B and Cu in a long-term(More)
Five-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) seedlings were subjected to three simulated growing seasons in controlled environment chambers. Plants were acclimated to a soil temperature of 16 degrees C during the first and third growing seasons, but were allocated at random to soil temperature treatments of 9, 13, 18 and 21 degrees C during the(More)
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