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The carboxylation of glutamic acid residues to gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) by the vitamin K-dependent gamma-glutamyl carboxylase (gamma-carboxylase) is an essential posttranslational modification required for the biological activity of a number of proteins, including proteins involved in blood coagulation and its regulation. Heterozygous mice carrying(More)
Activation of microglia and inflammation-mediated neurotoxicity are believed to play an important role in the pathogenesis of several neurodegenerative disorders, including multiple sclerosis. Studies demonstrate complex functions of activated microglia that can lead to either beneficial or detrimental outcomes, depending on the form and the timing of(More)
The objective of this study is to investigate the negative immunomodulatory capacity of human amniotic mesenchymal cells (AMSCs) and their possible intrinsic mechanism, by which we can confirm that they modulate microglial activation of central nervous system from multiple perspectives at the molecular level. The identification of the immune phenotype of(More)
BACKGROUND Herein we describe the history, design, and rationale of the new Childhood Arthritis and Rheumatology Research Alliance (CARRA) Registry and present the characteristics of patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) enrolled in the first 12 months of operation. METHODS The CARRA Registry began prospectively collecting data in the United(More)
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