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The distributions of GABA-like and glycine-like immunoreactivities in the rat spinal cord were compared by using postembedding immunohistochemistry on semithin sections. In laminae I, II, and III, the proportions of GABA immunoreactive cells were 28%, 31%, and 46%, respectively, whereas for glycine immunoreactive cells the proportions were 9%, 14%, and 30%.(More)
Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) constitute an expanding family of multifunctional cytokines with prominent roles in development, cell proliferation, differentiation, and repair. We have cloned, expressed, and raised antibodies against a distant member of the TGF-betas, growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15). GDF-15 is identical to macrophage(More)
We have cloned, expressed, and raised antibodies against a novel member of the TGF-beta superfamily, growth/differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15). The predicted protein is identical to macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1), which was discovered simultaneously. GDF-15 is a more distant member of the TGF-beta superfamily and does not belong to one of the(More)
A search was made for predisposing factors and sequelae of diet-induced obesity (DIO) or resistance to DIO (DR). During 3 mo on a high-energy (CM) diet, two-thirds of the male Sprague-Dawley rats ate 16% more calories over the first 30 days and developed DIO. The remaining one-third were DR, gaining the same amount of weight as chow-fed controls. Basal and(More)
The four isomers of hydroxycitrate have been tested as substrates and inhibitors for citrate synthase, citrate lyase, and ATP citrate lyase. None of the isomers served as a substrate for citrate synthase and they were moderate to weak inhibitors of this reaction. Of the four isomers, only (pncit)-(2S)-2-hydroxycitrate did not serve as a substrate for(More)
Neonatal sympathectomy with guanethidine (50 mg/kg for 3 wk) in Sprague-Dawley rats was previously shown not to significantly affect body weight gain, even when rats were raised in small litters and fed a high-calorie diet from weaning to produce diet-induced obesity (15). In our study rectal temperatures of cold-stressed (24 h at 4 degrees C)(More)
Oral administration of 13-cis-retinoic acid (40 or 160 milligrams per kilogram of body weight daily) significantly reduced the inflammation associated with developing and established adjuvant arthritis, an experimentally induced arthritis in rats that resembles human rheumatoid arthritis. The amount of collagenase secreted in tissue culture by adherent(More)
Mature male Sprague-Dawley rats fed a powdered Purina Chow diet containing corn oil and condensed milk (CM) were compared to rats fed a Purina Chow diet (control). CM rats gained more weight and consumed more calories over a 73-day period than the control rats. The increased weight gain and body fat in CM rats was accompanied by increased cell number in(More)
Transforming growth factor-betas (TGF-betas) constitute a superfamily of multifunctional cytokines with important implications in morphogenesis, cell differentiation, and tissue remodeling. In the developing nervous system, TGF-beta2 and -beta3 occur in radial and astroglial cells as well as in many populations of postmitotic, differentiating neurons.(More)
Carbohydrate metabolism was evaluated in lean and obese Zucker rats. Plasma glucose concentration, renal and hepatic gluconeogenesis, and hepatic glycogen content and rates of synthesis were investigated in 2-mo and 8-mo-old animals. Mild hyperglycemia was observed in obese Zucker rats compared to lean rats and was more pronounced in males than in females.(More)