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Ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) are a highly conserved family of ligand-gated ion channels present in animals, plants, and bacteria, which are best characterized for their roles in synaptic communication in vertebrate nervous systems. A variant subfamily of iGluRs, the Ionotropic Receptors (IRs), was recently identified as a new class of olfactory(More)
Linear motifs are short, evolutionarily plastic components of regulatory proteins and provide low-affinity interaction interfaces. These compact modules play central roles in mediating every aspect of the regulatory functionality of the cell. They are particularly prominent in mediating cell signaling, controlling protein turnover and directing protein(More)
Nascent mRNAs produced by transcription in the nucleus are subsequently processed and packaged into mRNA ribonucleoprotein particles (messenger ribonucleoproteins (mRNPs)) before export to the cytoplasm. Here, we have used the poly(A)-binding protein Nab2 to isolate mRNPs from yeast under conditions that preserve mRNA integrity. Upon Nab2-tandem affinity(More)
Linear motifs are short segments of multidomain proteins that provide regulatory functions independently of protein tertiary structure. Much of intracellular signalling passes through protein modifications at linear motifs. Many thousands of linear motif instances, most notably phosphorylation sites, have now been reported. Although clearly very abundant,(More)
Drosophila, like other invertebrates and plants, relies mainly on RNA interference for its defense against viruses. In flies, viral infection also triggers the expression of many genes. One of the genes induced, Vago, encodes a 18-kilodalton cysteine-rich polypeptide. Here we provide genetic evidence that the Vago gene product controlled viral load in the(More)
It is now clear that a detailed picture of cell regulation requires a comprehensive understanding of the abundant short protein motifs through which signaling is channeled. The current body of knowledge has slowly accumulated through piecemeal experimental investigation of individual motifs in signaling. Computational methods contributed little to this(More)
The development of the endomembrane system was a major step in eukaryotic evolution. Membrane coats, which exhibit a unique arrangement of beta-propeller and alpha-helical repeat domains, play key roles in shaping eukaryotic membranes. Such proteins are likely to have been present in the ancestral eukaryote but cannot be detected in prokaryotes using(More)
The eukaryotic linear motif (ELM http://elm.eu.org) resource is a hub for collecting, classifying and curating information about short linear motifs (SLiMs). For >10 years, this resource has provided the scientific community with a freely accessible guide to the biology and function of linear motifs. The current version of ELM contains ∼200 different motif(More)
The 17-subunit human RNA polymerase III (hPol III) transcribes small, untranslated RNA genes that are involved in the regulation of transcription, splicing and translation. hPol III subunits hRPC62, hRPC39 and hRPC32 form a stable ternary subcomplex required for promoter-specific transcription initiation by hPol III. Here, we report the crystal structure of(More)
The initiation of chromosomal DNA replication in human cell nuclei is not well understood because of its complexity. To allow investigation of this process on a molecular level, we have recently established a cell-free system that initiates chromosomal DNA replication in an origin-specific manner under cell cycle control in isolated human cell nuclei. We(More)