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Release of conventional neurotransmitters is mainly controlled by calcium (Ca²⁺) influx via high-voltage-activated (HVA), Ca(v)2, channels ("N-, P/Q-, or R-types") that are opened by action potentials. Regulation of transmission by subthreshold depolarizations does occur, but there is little evidence that low-voltage-activated, Ca(v)3 ("T-type"), channels(More)
Acetylcholine (ACh) influences a vast array of phenomena in cortical systems. It alters many ionic conductances and neuronal firing behavior, often by regulating membrane potential oscillations in populations of cells. Synaptic inhibition has crucial roles in many forms of oscillation, and cholinergic mechanisms regulate both oscillations and synaptic(More)
Cholescystokinin (CCK)- or parvalbumin (PV)-containing interneurons are the major perisomatic-targeting interneurons in the cerebral cortex, including hippocampus, and are thought to form mutually exclusive networks. We used several techniques to test the alternative hypothesis that CCK and PV cells are coupled by chemical synapses. Triple(More)
The strength of all chemical synapses can be rapidly up- or down-regulated by their recent activities to reshape the postsynaptic signal through a mechanism of short-term facilitation or depression. It is also true that sensory experience is essential for maturation of cortical circuits and function. We studied the effect of sensory experience on the(More)
Neuronal electrical oscillations in the theta (4-14 Hz) and gamma (30-80 Hz) ranges are necessary for the performance of certain animal behaviours and cognitive processes. Perisomatic GABAergic inhibition is prominently involved in cortical oscillations driven by ACh release from septal cholinergic afferents. In neocortex and hippocampal CA3 regions,(More)
Activation of muscarinic acetylcholine (ACh) receptors (mAChRs) powerfully affects many neuronal properties as well as numerous cognitive behaviors. Small neuronal circuits constitute an intermediate level of organization between neurons and behaviors, and mAChRs affect interactions among cells that compose these circuits. Circuit activity is often assessed(More)
AIM To determine the Ca2+ source and cellular mechanisms of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in hippocampal astrocytes. METHODS The cultured cells were loaded with Fluo-4 AM, the indicator of intracellular Ca2+, and the dynamic Ca2+ transients were visualized with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. RESULTS The spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in astrocytes(More)
The cleft is an integral part of synapses, yet its macromolecular organization remains unclear. We show here that the cleft of excitatory synapses exhibits a distinct density profile as measured by cryoelectron tomography (cryo-ET). Aiming for molecular insights, we analyzed the synapse-organizing proteins Synaptic Cell Adhesion Molecule 1 (SynCAM 1) and(More)
Synaptic transmission is maintained by a delicate, sub-synaptic molecular architecture, and even mild alterations in synapse structure drive functional changes during experience-dependent plasticity and pathological disorders. Key to this architecture is how the distribution of presynaptic vesicle fusion sites corresponds to the position of receptors in the(More)
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