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The strength of all chemical synapses can be rapidly up- or down-regulated by their recent activities to reshape the postsynaptic signal through a mechanism of short-term facilitation or depression. It is also true that sensory experience is essential for maturation of cortical circuits and function. We studied the effect of sensory experience on the(More)
AIM To determine the Ca2+ source and cellular mechanisms of spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in hippocampal astrocytes. METHODS The cultured cells were loaded with Fluo-4 AM, the indicator of intracellular Ca2+, and the dynamic Ca2+ transients were visualized with confocal laser-scanning microscopy. RESULTS The spontaneous Ca2+ oscillations in astrocytes(More)
Spiral patterns have been found in various nonequilibrium systems. The Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release system in single cardiac cells is unique for highly discrete reaction elements, each giving rise to a Ca(2+) spark upon excitation. We imaged the spiral Ca(2+) waves in isolated cardiac cells and numerically studied the effect of system excitability on(More)
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