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Recent studies have suggested that defects in the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) contribute to the etiopathogenetic mechanisms underlying dopaminergic neuronal degeneration in Parkinson's disease. The present study aims to study the effects of proteasome inhibition in the nerve terminals of nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars(More)
The neuropathological hallmark of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) is dopaminergic neuron degeneration in the substantia nigra. However, it has been suggested that the neurodegenerative process initially may occur in the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV). This implies that unidentified environmental toxins or neurotropic pathogens that is capable(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive degenerative disease involving the upper and lower motor neuron systems. Activated microglia are reported to enhance motor neuron death by secreting neurotoxic cytokines in SOD1-transgenic mice. Recent studies have provided evidence that chronic stimulation leads microglia to acquire an anti-inflammatory(More)
The rodent model of harmaline-induced tremor has been widely used for experimental analysis of tremor. Activation of the olivocerebellar system plays a key role in tremor-generating mechanisms. One undetermined problem is whether there are species-specific differences in effects of harmaline. The present study investigated effects of harmaline on(More)
Insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) is a potent survival factor for motor neurons in animals, and glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK-3beta) is suspected to play roles in apoptosis and tau phosphorylation. Here we report the immunological expression of IGF-I, GSK-3beta, phosphorylated-GSK-3alpha/beta (p-GSK-3alpha/beta) and phosphorylated-tau in the spinal(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the mechanisms underlying the anti-tremor effect of zonisamide in rats under conditions of tacrine-induced tremulous jaw movements (TJMs). METHODS Male adult rats received systemic administration of either zonisamide (5 or 50mg/kg) or vehicle at 20min prior to the administration of tacrine hydrochloride (5mg/kg). Animals were(More)
To clarify the role of biotin in palatal formation, we investigated the effects of biotin deficiency on the development of palatal processes in mouse fetuses at midgestation. We also investigated protein expressions in the palatal processes. Pregnant mice were given either a biotin-deficient diet or a biotin-supplemented (control) diet from day 0 of(More)
The present study was designed to confirm whether or not the ovarian toxicity of di(2-ethylhexyl)adipate (DEHA), which is known to have effects on female fertility, could be evaluated by the new method of histopathological examination of the ovaries in repeated dose toxicity. DEHA was orally administered to Crl:CD(SD) female rats at the doses of 0, 200,(More)
Purulent pericarditis is a life-threatening disorder, even in the modern antibiotic era. Although diabetes mellitus is known to be associated with an increased risk of multiple types of infections, purulent pericarditis is extremely rare. We herein report an unusual case of pericarditis caused by Salmonella enterica subspecies arizona that was not(More)
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