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The aim of this study was to investigate the various MRI biophysical models in the measurements of local cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) and the corresponding relationship with cerebral blood flow (CBF) during brain activation. This aim was addressed by simultaneously measuring the relative changes in CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative cerebral blood flow (delta CBF) and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (delta CMRO(2)) during continuous visual stimulation (21 min at 8 Hz) with fMRI biophysical models by simultaneously measuring of BOLD, CBF and CBV fMRI signals. The delta CMRO(2) was determined by both a(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate activation-induced hypermetabolism and hyperemia by using a multifrequency (4, 8, and 16 Hz) reversing-checkerboard visual stimulation paradigm. Specifically, we sought to (i) quantify the relative contributions of the oxidative and nonoxidative metabolic pathways in meeting the increased energy demands [i.e.,(More)
By restoring mitochondrial function, methylene blue (MB) is an effective neuroprotectant in many neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). MB has also been proposed as a brain metabolic enhancer because of its action on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine how MB affects brain(More)
Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been developed to noninvasively measure structural, metabolic, hemodynamic and functional changes of the brain. These advantages have made MRI an important tool to investigate neurodegenerative disorders, including diagnosis, disease progression monitoring, and treatment efficacy evaluation. This(More)
Recent studies have challenged the prevailing view that reduced mitochondrial function and increased oxidative stress are correlated with reduced longevity. Mice carrying a homozygous knockout (KO) of the Surf1 gene showed a significant decrease in mitochondrial electron transport chain Complex IV activity, yet displayed increased lifespan and reduced brain(More)
Metabolic physiology and functional neuroimaging have played important and complementary roles over the past two decades. In particular, investigations of the mechanisms underlying functional neuroimaging signals have produced fundamental new insights into hemodynamic and metabolic regulation. However, controversies were also raised as regards the metabolic(More)
Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24(More)
Caloric restriction (CR) prolongs lifespan and retards many detrimental effects of aging, but its effect on brain mitochondrial function and neuronal activity--especially in healthy aging--remains unexplored. Here we measured rates of neuronal glucose oxidation and glutamate-glutamine neurotransmitter cycling in young control, old control (i.e., healthy(More)
Cerebral blood volume (CBV) has been shown to be an important biomarker in a number of neurological disorders and in the quantitative interpretation of functional MRI. One approach to determine CBV in humans is vascular-space-occupancy MRI, and this technique has been applied to the studies of brain glioma, Schizophrenia, and Alzheimer's disease. However,(More)