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The aim of this study was to investigate the various MRI biophysical models in the measurements of local cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) and the corresponding relationship with cerebral blood flow (CBF) during brain activation. This aim was addressed by simultaneously measuring the relative changes in CBF, cerebral blood volume (CBV), and blood(More)
The discovery that rapamycin increases lifespan in mice and restores/delays many aging phenotypes has led to the speculation that rapamycin has 'anti-aging' properties. The major question discussed in this review is whether a manipulation that has anti-aging properties can alter the onset and/or progression of Alzheimer's disease, a disease in which age is(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between relative cerebral blood flow (delta CBF) and relative cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (delta CMRO(2)) during continuous visual stimulation (21 min at 8 Hz) with fMRI biophysical models by simultaneously measuring of BOLD, CBF and CBV fMRI signals. The delta CMRO(2) was determined by both a(More)
The purpose of this study was to investigate activation-induced hypermetabolism and hyperemia by using a multifrequency (4, 8, and 16 Hz) reversing-checkerboard visual stimulation paradigm. Specifically, we sought to (i) quantify the relative contributions of the oxidative and nonoxidative metabolic pathways in meeting the increased energy demands [i.e.,(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression is up-regulated in several types of human cancers and has also been directly linked to carcinogenesis. To investigate the role of COX-2 in pancreatic cancer, we evaluated COX-2 protein expression in primary human pancreatic adenocarcinomas (n = 23) and matched normal adjacent tissue (n = 11) by immunoblot analysis. COX-2(More)
Vascular pathology is a major feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias. We recently showed that chronic administration of the target-of-rapamycin (TOR) inhibitor rapamycin, which extends lifespan and delays aging, halts the progression of AD-like disease in transgenic human (h)APP mice modeling AD when administered before disease onset. Here(More)
By restoring mitochondrial function, methylene blue (MB) is an effective neuroprotectant in many neurological disorders (e.g., Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases). MB has also been proposed as a brain metabolic enhancer because of its action on mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase. We used in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine how MB affects brain(More)
Multimodal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques have been developed to noninvasively measure structural, metabolic, hemodynamic and functional changes of the brain. These advantages have made MRI an important tool to investigate neurodegenerative disorders, including diagnosis, disease progression monitoring, and treatment efficacy evaluation. This(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by age-dependent biochemical, metabolic, and physiologic changes. These age-dependent changes ultimately converge to impair cognitive functions. This study was carried out to examine the metabolic changes by probing glucose and tricarboxylic acid cycle metabolism in a 7-month-old triple transgenic mouse model of AD(More)
Activating mutations within the K-ras gene occur in a high percentage of human pancreatic carcinomas. We reported previously that the presence of oncogenic, activated K-ras in human pancreatic carcinoma cell lines did not result in constitutive activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK1 and ERK2). In the present study, we further(More)