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A number of behavioral studies suggest that infant-directed speech (IDS) plays a more important role in facilitating both: a) speech perception, and b) adult-infant social interactions than does adult-directed speech (ADS), and hence that IDS contributes to subsequent social and language development. However neural substrates that may underlie these IDS(More)
The grass Brachiaria brizantha, native to eastern Africa, becomes naturalized and dominant quickly in the non-native areas. It was hypothesized that phytotoxic chemical interaction between this plant and native plants may play an important role in the invasion of B. brizantha. However, no potent phytotoxic substance has been reported in this species.(More)
Previous studies have shown that Dehalococcoides species are responsible for the anaerobic bioremediation of chloroethene pollution. It has been thought that co-operation of several species is required for complete dechlorination to ethene. In the present study, we used quantitative PCR of 16 S rRNA and RDase (reductive dehalogenase) genes to examine(More)
We succeeded in constructing the Glu219Ala/Asp225Ala (i.e., E219A/D225A) serine racemase (SerR) by site-directed mutagenesis, and the effects of Mg(2+) on the catalytic efficiency and the structure were compared between the E219A/D225A-SerR and the wild-type protein. This is the first example of a serine racemase whose amino acid residues in the(More)
We report a precise control over the hierarchy levels in the outstanding self-organization process shown by chiral azobenzene dimer 1. This compound forms uniform toroidal nanostructures that can hierarchically organize into chiral nanotubes under the control by temperature, concentration, or light. The nanotubes further organized into supercoiled fibrils,(More)
Steam-exploded eucalyptus wood chips were treated with p-cresol and 72% sulfuric acid at ambient temperature. Steam-exploded lignin was isolated as acetone-soluble and diethyl ether-insoluble compounds from the cresol layer. The lignin extraction yield was only 47%, and the amount of cresol grafted to lignin was much less than that in the case of eucalyptus(More)
A model lignin-binding cellulase was prepared from Trichoderma reesei cellulase and lignocresol, which was synthesized from softwood or hardwood lignin. Filter paper was incubated with the lignocresol-cellulase complex, and it was observed that only a limited amount of cellulase migrated to the filter paper. The cellulase adsorption isotherms for the(More)
Alpha 7 subunits of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are expressed in microglia and are involved in the suppression of neuroinflammation. Over the past decade, many reports show beneficial effects of nicotine, though little is known about the mechanism. Here we show that nicotine inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced proton (H+) currents and(More)
Segmenting word units from running speech is a fundamental skill infants must develop in order to acquire language. Despite ample behavioral evidence of this skill, its neurocognitive basis remains unclear. Using behavioral testing and functional near-infrared spectroscopy, we aimed to uncover the neurocognitive substrates of word segmentation and its(More)
Controlling weeds through allelopathy is one strategy to reduce dependency on synthetic herbicides. The plant shoots of the grass Brachiaria brizantha incorporated into the field soil were found to inhibit the growth of several plant species. We investigated the variations of allelopathic activity and allelopathic substances in B. brizantha harvested in(More)