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G protein-sensitive inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK) channels are activated through direct interactions of their cytoplasmic N- and C-terminal domains with the beta gamma subunits of G proteins. By using a combination of biochemical and electrophysiological approaches, we identified minimal N- and C-terminal G beta gamma -binding domains responsible for(More)
The migration of olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) is essential for pioneering the olfactory nerve pathway during development and for promoting axonal regeneration when implanted into the injured central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, recombinant Nogo-66 enhanced the adhesion of OECs and inhibited their migration. Using immunocytochemistry and(More)
Glial cell response to injury has been well documented in the pathogenesis after traumatic brain injury (TBI) and spinal cord injury (SCI). Although microglia, the resident macrophages in the central nervous system (CNS), are responsible for clearing debris and toxic substances, excessive activation of these cells will lead to exacerbated secondary damage(More)
AIMS The NLRP3 inflammasome is a cytoplasmic multiprotein complex of the innate immune system that regulates the cleavage of interleukin-1β and interleukin-18 precursors. It can detect a wide range of danger signals and trigger a series of immune-inflammatory reactions. There were plenty of studies indicating that activation of the immune system played(More)
Olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) are a unique type of macroglia with axonal growth-promoting properties. The migrating ability of OECs in CNS is essential for neural regeneration. However, little is known about the extracellular and intracellular factors that regulate OEC migration. In the present study, we examined the effects of glial cell line-derived(More)
Axonal demyelination is a consistent pathological characteristic of spinal cord injury (SCI). Although an increased number of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) is observed in the injured spinal cord, they fail to convert into mature oligodendrocytes. However, little is known about the underlying mechanism. In our study, we identified a link between(More)
The major challenge for progressive multiple sclerosis therapy is the promotion of remyelination from inflammation-induced demyelination. A switch from an M1- to an M2-dominant polarization of microglia is critical in these repair processes. In this study, we identified the homeobox gene msh-like homeobox-3 (Msx3) as a new pivotal regulator for microglial(More)
Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) has been implicated in the pathophysiology of injury to the central nervous system. The rapid increase in CNTF production following spinal cord injury (SCI) in rats is thought to serve a role in the neuronal survival and functional recovery. In this study, 40 SD rats were divided into four groups: sham-operated group,(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) was originally recognized for its ability to promote survival of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, but it has since been demonstrated to be crucial for the survival and differentiation of many neuronal subpopulations, including motor neurons, sympathetic neurons, sensory neurons and enteric neurons. To(More)
Differentiation of oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) is a prerequisite for both developmental myelination and adult remyelination in the central nervous system. The molecular mechanisms underlying OPC differentiation remain largely unknown. Here, we show that the thirty-kDa HIV-1 Tat interacting protein (TIP30) is a negative regulator in(More)