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As a first step in applying the Integrated Nitrogen model for CAtchments (INCA) to the Simojoki river basin (3160 km 2), this paper focuses on calibration of the hydrological part of the model and nitrogen (N) dynamics in the river during the 1980s and 1990s. The model application utilised the GIS land-use and forest classification of Finland together with(More)
Nutrient leaching from agricultural production is still recognised as a major environmental problem in Finland. To estimate agricultural nitrogen loading under changing land-use and climate conditions, the Integrated Nitrogen Model for Catchments (INCA) was applied in Savijoki, a small (15.4 km 2) agricultural catchment, which represents the intensively(More)
The Integrated Nitrogen model for Catchments (INCA) was applied to three upland catchments in Norway and Finland to assess the possible impacts of climate change and nitrogen (N) deposition on concentrations and fluxes of N in streamwater in cold regions of Europe. The study sites cover gradients in climate and N deposition from the southern boreal Øygard(More)
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