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This study examined the time course of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) opening and correlated this with brain edema formation after a lateral controlled cortical impact (CCI) brain injury in rats. Quantitative measurement of Evans blue (EB) extravasation using fluorescence was employed at 2, 4, 6 h and 1, 2, 3, 4 and 7 days after injury. Brain edema was(More)
Ethanol-induced structural changes in membranes have in some studies been attributed to an increase in total membrane cholesterol. Consistent changes in cholesterol content, however, have not been observed in membranes of ethanol consuming animals and alcoholic patients. This study examined the hypotheses that cholesterol was asymmetrically distributed in(More)
Accumulation of arachidonic acid (AA) is greatest in brain regions most sensitive to transient ischemia. Free AA released after ischemia is either: 1) reincorporated into the membrane phospholipids, or 2) oxidized during reperfusion by lipoxygenases and cyclooxygenases, producing leukotrienes (LT), prostaglandins, thromboxanes and oxygen radicals. AA, its(More)
Glial (GLT-1 and GLAST) and neuronal (EAAC1) high-affinity transporters mediate the sodium dependent glutamate reuptake in mammalian brain. Their dysfunction leads to neuronal damage by allowing glutamate to remain in the synaptic cleft for a longer duration. The purpose of the present study is to understand their contribution to the ischemic delayed(More)
CDP-choline is a rate-limiting intermediate in the biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho), an important component of the neural cell membrane. The ability of CDP-choline to alter phospholipid metabolism is an important function in the treatment of ischemic injury. Exogenous treatment with CDP-choline stimulates PtdCho synthesis and prevents release of(More)
We have previously demonstrated that cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline or citicoline) attenuated arachidonic acid (ArAc) release and provided significant protection for the vulnerable hippocampal CA(1) neurons of the cornu ammonis after transient forebrain ischemia of gerbil. ArAc is released by the activation of phospholipases and the alteration of(More)
Polyamines and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors are both thought to play an important role in secondary neuronal injury after cerebral ischemia. Ifenprodil, known as a noncompetitive inhibitor of polyamine sites at the NMDA receptor, was studied after transient focal cerebral ischemia occurred. Spontaneously hypertensive male rats, each weighing(More)
In models of middle cerebral artery occlusion using intraluminal suture, the size and the distribution of ischemic injury vary considerably among laboratories. In transcranial models of cerebral ischemia, a more consistent cerebral ischemic lesion is seen in Spontaneously Hypertensive rats (SHR). In the present study, we performed intraluminal suture(More)
BACKGROUND Appendicectomy is a well established surgical procedure used in the management of acute appendicitis.  The operation can be performed with minimally invasive surgery (laparoscopic) or as an open procedure. A recent development in appendicectomy has been the introduction of less invasive single incision laparoscopic surgery, using a single(More)
The face of surgery has changed over the past two decades with the introduction of laparoscopic techniques. The majority of surgical specialties now perform minimally invasive procedures hence decreasing the scarring, pain, and infection historically associated with open surgery. To further reduce the invasiveness of surgery, new surgical techniques like(More)