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The alpha 1-adrenergic receptors activate a phospholipase C enzyme by coupling to members of the large molecular size (approximately 74 to 80 kilodaltons) G alpha h family of guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins. Rat liver G alpha h is now shown to be a tissue transglutaminase type II (TGase II). The transglutaminase activity of rat liver TGase II(More)
In the current model of receptor activation, the given hormone is not involved in the conversion of the inactive receptor (R) to the fully active state (R*). Rather, it preferentially selects the activated receptor conformation, thereby shifting the equilibrium toward R*. The hormone angiotensin II (Ang II) contains two residues, Tyr4 and Phe8, that are(More)
Reduced preload and afterload to the heart are important effects of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in the treatment of congestive heart failure. However, since angiotensin II (Ang II) directly increases the strength of myocardial contraction, suppression of Ang II formation by ACE inhibitors could potentially reduce the beneficial effects of(More)
It is widely believed that perinatal cardiomyocyte terminal differentiation blocks cytokinesis, thereby causing binucleation and limiting regenerative repair after injury. This suggests that heart growth should occur entirely by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy during preadolescence when, in mice, cardiac mass increases many-fold over a few weeks. Here, we show(More)
We have shown previously that the octapeptide angiotensin II (Ang II) activates the AT1 receptor through an induced-fit mechanism (Noda, K., Feng, Y. H., Liu, X. P., Saad, Y., Husain, A., and Karnik, S. S. (1996) Biochemistry 35, 16435-16442). In this activation process, interactions between Tyr4 and Phe8 of Ang II with Asn111 and His256 of the AT1(More)
To identify specific interactions between either the tetrazole or carboxylate pharmacophores of non-peptide antagonists and the rat AT1 receptor, 6 basic residues were examined by site-directed mutagenesis. Three of the mutants (H183Q, H256Q, and H272Q) appeared to be like wild type. Lys102 and Arg167 mutants displayed reduced binding of the non-peptide(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors, estimated by the specific binding of the peptide Ang II receptor antagonist [125I] [Sar1,Ile8]Ang II, are localized on multiple ovarian structures, including follicular granulosa cells. Using the Ang II receptor subtype-selective nonpeptide antagonists, DuP 753 [selective for the type 1 Ang II (AT1) receptor] and PD 123319(More)
The current model of serine protease diversity theorizes that the earliest protease molecules were simple digestive enzymes that gained complex regulatory functions and restricted substrate specificities through evolution. Among the chymase group of serine proteases are enzymes that convert angiotensin I to angiotensin II, as well as others that simply(More)
To demonstrate the existence and help clarify the function of angiotensin II (Ang II) receptors in the human heart, we characterized the cardiac Ang II receptor and examined the levels and distribution of ventricular Ang II receptors in normal (n = 6) and failing (n = 14) hearts. Ang II receptors were characterized using the Ang II receptor agonist(More)
BACKGROUND The volume overload of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) in the dog results in left ventricular (LV) dilatation and interstitial collagen loss. To better understand the mechanism of collagen loss, we performed a gene array and overlaid regulated genes into ingenuity pathway analysis. METHODS AND RESULTS Gene arrays from LV tissue were compared(More)