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The therapeutic efficacy of anticancer chemotherapies may depend on dendritic cells (DCs), which present antigens from dying cancer cells to prime tumor-specific interferon-γ (IFN-γ)–producing T lymphocytes. Here we show that dying tumor cells release ATP, which then acts on P2X7 purinergic receptors from DCs and triggers the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin(More)
Transcription of the murine interferon-A4 (IFN-A4) gene is mediated by a virus responsive element (VRE-A4) located in the promoter proximal [-120 to -43] region. VRE-A4 contains four DNA modules (A to D) which cooperate for maximal IFN-A4 activation following virus infection. The differential expression between the highly expressed IFN-A4 and the weakly(More)
Immune recognition of virus-associated molecules by Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and/or RIG-I-like receptors (RLRs) triggers intracellular signaling cascades that converge on the activation of interferon regulatory factors - particularly IRF3 and IRF7, leading to the transcriptional induction of type 1 interferon genes. This review summarizes new data(More)
Type I interferon (IFN-A and IFN-B) genes encode a large family of multifunctional secreted proteins involved in antiviral defence, cell growth regulation and immune activation. These cytokines, as a consequence of their biological activities, have been established as effective therapeutic molecules for malignant and viral diseases. Virus infection is the(More)
Two members of the signal transducer and activator of transcription family, STAT1 and STAT2, form, together with interferon regulatory factor 9 (IRF-9), the ISGF3 complex that activates the expression of the interferon-stimulated genes (ISG). The ISGF3 complex also participates in the virus-induced alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) gene amplification(More)
Stress granules (SGs) are membrane-less dynamic structures consisting of mRNA and protein aggregates that form rapidly in response to a wide range of environmental cellular stresses and viral infections. They act as storage sites for translationally silenced mRNAs under stress conditions. During viral infection, SG formation results in the modulation of(More)
BACKGROUND Induction of Type I Interferon (IFN) genes constitutes an essential step leading to innate immune responses during virus infection. Sendai virus (SeV) infection of B lymphoid Namalwa cells transiently induces the transcriptional expression of multiple IFN-A genes. Although transcriptional activation of IFN-A genes has been extensively studied,(More)
Different members of the interferon regulatory factor (IRF) family are early activated by viral infection of eukaryotic cells. The IRFs participate in the virus-induced transcriptional regulation of different genes, including the multigenic interferon-A (IFN-A) family, members of which are involved in the establishment of an antiviral state, cell growth(More)
Transcriptional regulation is a consequence of the combination of both activation and repression for establishing specific patterns of eukaryotic gene expression. The regulation of the expression of type I interferon (IFN-A and -B) multigene family is controlled primarily at the transcriptional level and has been widely studied as a model to understand the(More)
Virus-induced expression of interferon (IFN)-A genes is regulated by two members of the IFN regulatory factor (IRF) family, IRF-3 and IRF-7, which are activated by phosphorylation during viral infection by the IKK-related serine/threonine kinases TBK1 and IkappaB kinase epsilon (IKKepsilon). In this study, we demonstrate that three IRF-binding sites located(More)