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Muslims believe that the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (SAAW) is the second of the two revealed fundamental sources of Islam, after the Holy Qur'an. Hadith provides a Gold Standard "ground truth" for Artificial Intelligent (AI) knowledge extraction and knowledge representation experiments. In the present study, the extracted Islamic knowledge represented(More)
This paper presents and compares techniques that have been used to segment Arabic handwriting scripts in online recognition systems. Those techniques attempt to segment cursive Arabic words into characters, or segment characters into small strokes that can be recognized via the recognition system. The structure and strategy of those reviewed techniques are(More)
Online recognition of Arabic handwritten text has been an ongoing research problem for many years. Generally, online text recognition field has been gaining more interest lately due to the increasing popularity of hand-held computers, digital notebooks and advanced cellular phones. Most of the online text recognition systems consist of three main phases(More)
Online recognition of Arabic handwritten text has been an on-going research problem for many years. Generally, online text recognition field has been gaining more interest lately due to the increasing popularity of hand-held computers, digital notebooks and advanced cellular phones. However, different techniques have been used to build several online(More)
Decision tree algorithms have the ability to deal with missing values. While this ability is considered to be advantage, the extreme effort which is required to achieve it is considered a drawback. With the missing values the correct branch could be missed. Therefore, enhanced mechanisms must be employed to handle these values. Moreover, ignoring these null(More)
Nowadays, keyboards and mice are the basic input devices for personal computers. Nevertheless, these devices may not remain as the only way of transmitting electronic data to computers. Other methods may become necessary, particularly with regard to the size of newer mobile devices and the method of transmission. Hand-held computers, mobile technology, for(More)
Qur'an, AL-Sunnah and Islamic traditional books are the rich resources for Muslims that used as the sole authoritative source of knowledge, wisdom and law. The challenge for computer scientists is to extract and represent these knowledge, wisdom and law in computer systems, this knowledge is directed or underlying, therefore, to build an intelligent systems(More)
Same as Arabic scripts, Arabic mathematical symbols have some differences with Latin mathematical symbols shape. Although, Arabic Mathematical symbols follow Latin mathematical from the structure of writing the symbols, Arabic symbols have special shape like writing direction, cursive style, and written by Arabic characters. In fact, these symbols are being(More)
Thinning “Skeletonization” is a very crucial stage in the Arabic Character Recognition (ACR) system. It simplifies the text shape and reduces the amount of data that needs to be handled and it is usually used as a pre-processing stage for recognition and storage systems. The skeleton of Arabic text can be used for: baseline detection,(More)
Arabic chemical symbols are remarkably different from Latin chemical symbols which written by Arabic characters. On the other hand, Arabic chemical symbols follow Latin chemical symbols from the structure of writing the symbols. Although, Arabic symbols have special way of the writing like writing direction, cursive style, and written by Arabic characters.(More)