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The growth and division of Staphylococcus aureus was monitored by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and thin-section transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A good correlation of the structural events of division was found using the two microscopies, and AFM was able to provide new additional information. AFM was performed under water, ensuring that all(More)
Type IV pili play an important role in bacterial adhesion, motility, and biofilm formation. Here we present high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of type IV pili from Pseudomonas aeruginosa bacteria. An individual pilus ranges in length from 0.5 to 7 microm and has a diameter from 4 to 6 nm, although often, pili bundles in which the(More)
When solving the Symmetric Positive Definite (SPD) linear system Ax = b with the conjugate gradient method, the smallest eigenvalues in the matrix A often slow down the convergence. Consequently if the smallest eigenvalues in A could be somehow " removed " , the convergence may be improved. This observation is of importance even when a preconditioner is(More)
Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida, a bacterial pathogen of Atlantic salmon, has no visible pili, yet its genome contains genes for three type IV pilus systems. One system, Tap, is similar to the Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pil system, and a second, Flp, resembles the Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans Flp pilus, while the third has homology to the(More)
In this article, a new extension of affine arithmetic is introduced. This technique is based on a quadratic form named general quadratic form. We focus here on the computation of reliable bounds of a function over a hypercube by using this new tool. Some properties of first quadratic functions and then polynomial ones are reported. In order to show the(More)
Biofilms are surface-mounted, multicellular communities of microbes. Biofilms are often associated with chronic infections that resist treatment, evade the immune system, and damage host tissue. An essential characteristic of the biofilm state is that constituent organisms are bound in a polymeric matrix. This matrix gives the system spatial structure and(More)
Given a regular matrix pencil <i>&#955;</i><b>B</b> -- <b>A</b> and a positively oriented contour <i>&#947;</i> in the complex plane, the spectral dichotomy methods applied to <i>&#955;</i><b>B</b> -- <b>A</b> and <i>&#947;</i> consist in determining whether <i>&#955;</i><b>B</b> -- <b>A</b> possesses eigenvalues on or in a neighborhood of <i>&#947;</i>.(More)
BACKGROUND In Escherichia coli, MinD-GFP fusion proteins show rapid pole to pole oscillations. The objective was to investigate the effects of extracellular cations on the subcellular oscillation of cytoplasmic MinD within Escherichia coli. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We exposed bacteria to the extracellular cations Ca(++), Mg(++), the cationic(More)