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Microglia plays important role in central nervous system immune surveillance and has emerged as an essential cellular component for understanding brain diseases. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate the post-transcriptional expression of protein-coding mRNAs, which may have key roles in microglial activation in response to brain ischemia(More)
Mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) is a particularly devastating form of human epilepsy with significant incidence of medical intractability. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNAs that regulate the posttranscriptional expression of protein-coding mRNAs, which may have key roles in the pathogenesis of MTLE development. To study the dynamic expression(More)
Recently, the role of inflammation has attracted great attention in the pathogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE), and microRNAs start to emerge as promising new players in MTLE pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the dynamic expression patterns of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and microRNA-155 (miR-155) in the hippocampi of an(More)
Although there have been tremendous advances in the diagnosis and treatment of pediatric brain diseases in the last few decades, the causes and pathogenesis of these diseases remain to be elucidated. Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) diseases create both short- and long-term impairments and disabilities and are therefore one of the leading causes for(More)
Chronic diseases are the major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide and have shown increasing incidence rates among children in the last decades. Chronic illnesses in the pediatric population, even if well managed, affect social, psychological, and physical development and often limit education and active participation and increase the risk for health(More)
Astrocyte activation, associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin 1-β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), is a hallmark of multiple brain diseases, including mesial temporal lobe epilepsy. In recent years, several microRNAs have emerged as important controllers of Toll-like receptor (TLR)(More)
Astrocytes are now recognized as a heterogeneous class of cells with many important and diverse functions in healthy and diseased central nervous system (CNS). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNAs which may have key roles in astrocytes activation in response to various stimuli. We performed quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) to detect changes in the(More)
The role of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in the activation of innate immunity has been extensively studied in the past several years. Here, we are the first to report that myeloid-related protein 8 (MRP8), an endogenous TLR4 ligand, is involved in the epileptogenesis of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE). We find that the expression of MRP8, TLR4, and(More)
The ability to control and tune interactions in ultracold atomic gases has paved the way for the realization of new phases of matter. So far, experiments have achieved a high degree of control over short-range interactions, but the realization of long-range interactions has become a central focus of research because it would open up a new realm of many-body(More)