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Decisions about medical treatments and the settings of health programs are not purely technical, but also involve issues of value such as the evaluation of trade-offs between quality of life (morbidity) and quantity of life (mortality). The most commonly used measure of outcome in such cases is the quality-adjusted life year (QALY). The authors show that(More)
The healthy-years equivalent (HYE) is a measure of outcome of health care programs that combines two outcomes of interest: quality of life and quantity of life. Unlike QALYs (quality-adjusted life years) HYEs fully represent patients' (or other individuals') preferences, as a result of the way they are calculated from each individual's utility function. The(More)
This paper responds to Culyer and Wagstaff's (CW) and Buckingham's (B) arguments. We refute their claim about the equivalence of HYEs and QALYs; they fail to distinguish between choice under uncertainty and under certainty. CW assume that all individuals have a specific form of utility function, which yields their conclusion of equivalence. B's arguments(More)
The authors respond to the contention that healthy-years equivalents (HYEs) do not fulfil claims they previously made. They refute the argument for the equivalence of the two-stage lottery and the time tradeoff and show that it fails to recognize the difference between choice problems under uncertainty versus certainty. They also dismiss the claim that HYEs(More)
A commonly used method of measuring cardinal preferences for the purpose of evaluating health related quality of life is the time trade-off (TTO) technique. The TTO technique, although offered as a substitute to the standard gamble (SG) technique, is not related in a general way to any existing behavioral theory. We suggest that in the context of value(More)
This paper focuses on the evaluation, from an individual and societal perspective, of risk in terms of possible loss of life due to an exposure to two different types of events over a period of time. The two types are: risk of death from a catastrophic event (a sudden death of many people in a disaster at a yet unknown point in time) expected to occur(More)
Decisions about medical treatment and health programmes involve both technical and value judgements. For the purpose of performing an economic appraisal of different health interventions (including drug interventions), a single global score is essential as the measure of outcome. This measure should enable us to compare different interventions that affect(More)
This chapter aims to present a conceptual model in order to facilitate sustainability in cloud computing resulting in sustainability in organizational knowledge in education. From one perspective, while cloud computing has been considered as a recent area of research due to arguments round its value to organizational performance, sustainability has turned(More)
Software quality has always been described as a poorly developed construct. Several reports and much evidence show clear problems related to software quality outputs. Therefore, software quality problems constitute the phenomenon investigated in this research question: Why does quality management not achieve its anticipated outcomes in the software(More)
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