Ahmed M. Alsayed

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We report on the behavior of micron-sized prolate ellipsoids trapped at an oil-water interface. The particles experience strong, anisotropic, and long-ranged attractive capillary interactions which greatly exceed the thermal energy k(B)T. Depending on surface chemistry, the particles aggregate into open structures or chains. Using video microscopy, we(More)
Premelting is the localized loss of crystalline order at surfaces and defects at temperatures below the bulk melting transition. It can be thought of as the nucleation of the melting process. Premelting has been observed at the surfaces of crystals but not within. We report observations of premelting at grain boundaries and dislocations within bulk(More)
We studied the Brownian motion of isolated ellipsoidal particles in water confined to two dimensions and elucidated the effects of coupling between rotational and translational motion. By using digital video microscopy, we quantified the crossover from short-time anisotropic to long-time isotropic diffusion and directly measured probability distributions(More)
We prepare a novel suspension composed of rodlike fd virus and thermosensitive polymer poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) whose phase diagram is temperature and concentration dependent. The system exhibits a rich variety of stable and metastable phases, and provides a unique opportunity to directly observe melting of lamellar phases and single lamellae. Typically,(More)
We study colloidal particle dynamics of a model glass system using confocal and fluorescence microscopy as the sample evolves from a hard-sphere glass to a liquid with attractive interparticle interactions. The transition from hard-sphere glass to attractive liquid is induced by short-range depletion forces. The development of liquid-like structure is(More)
Melting of two-dimensional colloidal crystals is studied by video microscopy. The samples were composed of microgel spheres whose diameters could be temperature tuned, and whose pair potentials were measured to be short ranged and repulsive. We observed two-step melting from the crystal to a hexatic phase and from the hexatic to the liquid phase as a(More)
Geometric frustration arises when lattice structure prevents simultaneous minimization of local interaction energies. It leads to highly degenerate ground states and, subsequently, to complex phases of matter, such as water ice, spin ice, and frustrated magnetic materials. Here we report a simple geometrically frustrated system composed of closely packed(More)
When the packing fraction is increased sufficiently, loose particulates jam to form a rigid solid in which the constituents are no longer free to move. In typical granular materials and foams, the thermal energy is too small to produce structural rearrangements. In this zero-temperature (T = 0) limit, multiple diverging and vanishing length scales(More)
We report on video-microscopy measurements of the translational and rotational Brownian motions of isolated ellipsoidal particles in quasi-two-dimensional sample cells of increasing thickness. The long-time diffusion coefficients were measured along the long (Da) and short (Db) ellipsoid axes, respectively, and the ratio, Da/Db, was determined as a function(More)
The microscopic kinetics of ubiquitous solid-solid phase transitions remain poorly understood. Here, by using single-particle-resolution video microscopy of colloidal films of diameter-tunable microspheres, we show that transitions between square and triangular lattices occur via a two-step diffusive nucleation pathway involving liquid nuclei. The(More)