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Similar to conventional adaptive arrays, ES-PAR Antenna is an adaptive solution that can create and steer both radiation lobes and nulls in arbitrary directions [1]. The radiation pattern is controlled by varying the DC voltage across varactors loading the parasitic elements that surround a feed element. Due to it's low cost, compact size, uncomplicated(More)
The national energy generation resources of Pakistan are becoming insufficient due to increased demand of electrical energy. The country is suffering from a continuous shortfall of thousands of megawatts especially in summer when the demand increases many folds. The additional support to the national grid by means of small hydro projects on canals can be(More)
—This paper encompasses simulation, designing and hardware manufacturing of ESPAR based smart antenna system that is capable of electronic beam forming. Antenna designing involves defining of design parameters followed by simulation of results and manufacturing of hardware. Seven element ESPAR antenna is designed with active centre element and six passive(More)
— We have proposed design of ESPAR (Electronically Steerable Parasitic Array Radiator) antenna that is capable of electronic beam steering in order to avoid interference, null is placed in direction of interference source whereas maxima is placed in direction of desired signal source. Paper includes formulation of mathematical model, simulation and later(More)
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