Ahmed J. Afzal

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Plants are hosts to a wide array of pathogens from all kingdoms of life. In the absence of an active immune system or combinatorial diversifications that lead to recombination-driven somatic gene flexibility, plants have evolved different strategies to combat both individual pathogen strains and changing pathogen populations. The receptor-like kinase (RLK)(More)
Genomes that have been highly conserved following increases in ploidy (by duplication or hybridization) like Glycine max (soybean) present challenges during genome analysis. At http://soybeangenome.siu.edu the Soybean Genome Database (SoyGD) genome browser has, since 2002, integrated and served the publicly available soybean physical map, bacterial(More)
The creation of minimally redundant tile paths (hereafter MTP) from contiguous sets of overlapping clones (hereafter contigs) in physical maps is a critical step for structural and functional genomics. Build 4 of the physical map of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr. cv. 'Forrest') showed the 1 Gbp haploid genome was composed of 0.7 Gbp diploid, 0.1 Gbp(More)
The Arabidopsis NB-LRR immune receptor RPM1 recognizes the Pseudomonas syringae type III effectors AvrB or AvrRpm1 to mount an immune response. Although neither effector is itself a kinase, AvrRpm1 and AvrB are known to target Arabidopsis RIN4, a negative regulator of basal plant defense, for phosphorylation. We show that RIN4 phosphorylation activates(More)
Heterodera glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN), causes the most damaging chronic disease of soybean (Glycine max). Host resistance requires the resistance allele at rhg1. Resistance destroys the giant cells created in the plant's roots by the nematodes about 24 to 48 h after commencement of feeding. In addition, 4 to 8 d later, a systemic acquired(More)
Soybean (Glycine max (L. Merr.)) resistance to any population of Heterodera glycines (I.), or Fusarium virguliforme (Akoi, O’Donnell, Homma & Lattanzi) required a functional allele at Rhg1/Rfs2. H. glycines, the soybean cyst nematode (SCN) was an ancient, endemic, pest of soybean whereas F. virguliforme causal agent of sudden death syndrome (SDS), was a(More)
Although the functions of a few effector proteins produced by bacterial and oomycete plant pathogens have been elucidated in recent years, information for the vast majority of pathogen effectors is still lacking, particularly for those of plant-pathogenic fungi. Here, we show that the avirulence effector AvrPiz-t from the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe(More)
Two sensitive, high-resolution and exceedingly versatile methods for the detection of isoenzymes of polymer-degrading enzymes on high-resolution, alkaline, cold, in situ-native (HiRACIN)-PAGE and high-resolution in situ-inhibited, native (HiRISIN)-PAGE are described. Extracellular crude extracts containing xylanases and carboxymethylcellulases from(More)
Two isoenzymes of endo-1,4-beta-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from Scopulariopsis sp. were purified by a combination of ammonium sulfate precipitation, hydrophobic interaction, and anion-exchange and gel filtration chromatography. The native mol wts of the least acidic xylanase (LAX) and the highly acidic xylanase (HAX) were 25 and 144 kDa and the subunit mol wts(More)
Introduction and expression of foreign genes in bacteria often results accumulation of the foreign protein(s) in inclusion bodies (IBs). The subsequent processes of refolding are slow, difficult and often fail to yield significant amounts of folded protein. RHG1 encoded by rhg1 was a soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) transmembrane receptor-like kinase (EC(More)