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Some patients develop post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) after they have been treated for the systemic infection kala-azar (visceral leishmaniasis). It has been an enigma why the parasites cause skin symptoms after the patients have been successfully treated for the systemic disease. We report here that PKDL development can be predicted before(More)
The T cell response to antigens from Leishmania major promastigotes was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from Sudanese individuals with a history of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), Sudanese individuals with positive DTH reaction in the leishmanin skin test but with no history of skin lesions, and in Danes without known exposure to Leishmania(More)
The immune responses in actinomycetoma lesions caused by Streptomyces somaliensis in Sudan were characterized by immunohistochemistry during 1997-1998. In sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin, the inflammatory reaction around the grain was of 2 types. In type I there were 3 zones: a neutrophil zone immediately around the grain, an intermediate zone(More)
We have compared the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool against conventional microscopical diagnostic techniques in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis from the Sudan. Twenty-eight patients were diagnosed according to clinical criteria followed by microscopical examination of histological sections and slit or(More)
In 1994-1996, we studied a group of 58 game wardens stationed in an area known to be highly endemic for visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) for evidence of infection with Leishmania donovani. Leishmania DNA was detected by the polymerase chain reaction in the peripheral blood of cases of active kala-azar, former patients with visceral leishmaniasis,(More)
Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients who have recovered from visceral leishmaniasis often respond to Leishmania antigens in vitro by production of both IL-4, IFN-gamma and IL-10. In order to establish the cellular sources of these cytokines, we activated cells from individuals with a history of visceral leishmaniasis with Leishmania(More)
The repetitive sequence of Leishmania major gene B protein (GBP) has previously been shown to be a useful tool in the diagnosis of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL). Here, we have assessed enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) using recombinant L. donovani GBP (rGBP) and a peptide sequence of L. donovani GBP (GBPP) in the diagnosis of L. donovani(More)
In the present communication we provide evidence for the existence of a Th1/Th2 dichotomy in the T-cell response to Leishmania antigens in human leishmaniasis. Our data suggest that the pattern of IL-4 and IFN-gamma response is polarised in these patients. Lymphocytes from individuals recovered from cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) responded by IFN-gamma(More)
Drought stress near heading reduces grain yield in rice cultivars by inhibiting processes such as anther dehiscence and panicle exsertion. Because cell-wall invertases play an important role in carbon allocation to developing organs, we examined the tissue-specific expression and drought sensitivity of the corresponding genes (OsCIN1-9) at heading in the(More)