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The use of contrast agents (CA) with liver ultrasound (US) has gained recently an established role for the diagnosis of various hepatic diseases due to their safety, high versatility and low costs (contrast-enhanced ultrasound: CEUS). The purpose of this review is to provide a state-of-the-art summary of the available evidence for their use in the(More)
BACKGROUND The coexistence of breast cancer and tuberculosis is very rare. This can create a dilemma in the diagnosis and treatment as there are no pathognomonic symptoms or signs to distinguish both diseases. CASE PRESENTATION A female patient was seen in the breast clinic for a right breast lump. Clinical examination and investigation confirmed cancer(More)
BACKGROUND Primary cutaneous melanoma of the breast is a very rare tumour, accounting for < 5% of all malignant melanomas. CASE PRESENTATION A young lady was seen in the breast clinic for a skin lesion in the right breast. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed a diagnosis of a primary cutaneous melanoma of the breast. The lesion was excised(More)
BACKGROUND The ex vivo porcine liver perfused model isolates the organ from extrinsic regulatory mechanisms, facilitating an improved understanding of the organ physiology and reaction to various conditions. We have assessed the influence of the addition of a porcine kidney to the circuit. METHODS Eight livers were harvested and perfused for 6 hours. In 5(More)
INTRODUCTION Retroperitoneal cysts are uncommon, with an estimated incidence of 1/5750 to 1/250,000. CASE PRESENTATION A male patient was admitted with an abdominal pain, jaundice and fever. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed an idiopathic benign retroperitoneal cyst. He underwent surgery and was discharged after making good recovery. (More)
INTRODUCTION The appearance of the apple-core lesion of the colon can be caused by several diseases. CASE PRESENTATION A male patient was referred to the surgical clinic with melaena and weight loss. Clinical examination and investigations confirmed an apple-core lesion of the colon. He underwent surgery, but unfortunately, died of a chest infection two(More)
Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare skin neoplasm and has not been reported yet in a male breast. We present a case of 74-year-old patient who was referred to the breast clinic with a lump in his right breast, which led first to the core biopsy followed by radical mastectomy and axillary clearance. The clinical characteristics, gross, microscopic and(More)
The addition of a kidney to the ex vivo liver perfused model may facilitate the circuit homeostatic balance of important biochemical parameters (i.e. pH changes, urea and creatinine, or glucose levels) but might also increase the inflammatory reaction produced. In this study, we compared the production of various cytokines between liver–kidney and(More)
BACKGROUND Microbubbles have improved ultrasonography imaging techniques over the past 2 decades. Their safety, versatility, and easiness of use have rendered them equal or even superior in some instances to other imaging modalities such as computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. Herein, we conducted a literature review to present their types,(More)