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Cardiac sodium channel are protein complexes that are expressed in the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes to carry a large inward depolarizing current (INa) during phase 0 of the cardiac action potential. The importance of INa for normal cardiac electrical activity is reflected by the high incidence of arrhythmias in cardiac sodium channelopathies, i.e.,(More)
Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor and causes vasodilatation, particularly in pulmonary circulation. Since left heart failure may be associated with pulmonary hypertension "out of proportion to left heart disease," sildenafil may have beneficial effect in such patients. The present investigation was designed as a 12-week, single-center,(More)
Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is caused by single autosomal-dominant mutations in a gene encoding for a cardiac ion channel or an accessory ion channel subunit. These single mutations can cause life-threatening arrhythmias and sudden death in heterozygous mutation carriers. This recognition has been the basis for world-wide staggering numbers of(More)
Cardiac electrical activity depends on the coordinated propagation of excitatory stimuli through the heart and, as a consequence, the generation of action potentials in individual cardiomyocytes. Action potential formation results from the opening and closing (gating) of ion channels that are expressed within the sarcolemma of cardiomyocytes. Ion channels(More)
BACKGROUND Worldwide, the Brugada syndrome has been recognized as an important cause of sudden cardiac death in individuals at a relatively young age. Importantly, many drugs have been reported to induce the characteristic Brugada syndrome-linked ECG abnormalities and/or (fatal) ventricular tachyarrhythmias. OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to(More)
AIMS Heterozygous mutations in KCNQ1 cause type 1 long QT syndrome (LQT1), a disease characterized by prolonged heart rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) and life-threatening arrhythmias. It is unknown why disease penetrance and expressivity is so variable between individuals hosting identical mutations. We aimed to study whether this can be explained by(More)
Type 2 congenital long QT syndrome (LQT-2) is linked to mutations in the human ether a-go-go-related gene (HERG) and is characterized by rate-corrected QT interval (QTc) prolongation, ventricular arrhythmias, syncope, and sudden death. Recognized triggers of these cardiac events include emotional and acoustic stimuli. Here we investigated the repeated(More)
Chromosome 21 nondisjunction in oocytes is the most common cause of trisomy 21, the primary chromosomal abnormality responsible for Down syndrome (DS). This specific type of error is estimated to account for over 90 % of live births with DS, with maternal age being the best known risk factor for chromosome 21 nondisjunction. The loss of telomere length and(More)
BACKGROUND Ventricular arrhythmia occurrence during exercise is reported in Brugada syndrome (BrS). Accordingly, experimental studies suggest that BrS-linked SCN5A mutations reduce sodium current more at fast heart rates. Yet, the effects of exercise on the BrS ECG phenotype have not been studied. We aimed to assess ECG responses to exercise in BrS and(More)