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We studied the diversity of Aedes breeding sites in various urban, suburban, and rural areas over time between February 2009 and February 2010 in the dengue endemic areas of Penang Island, Malaysia. We categorized the breeding sites and efficiency, and identified the key breeding containers. Among the 3 areas, the rural areas produced the highest container(More)
Mating is a physiological process of crucial importance underlying the size and maintenance of mosquito populations. In sterile and incompatible insect technologies (SIT and IIT), mating is essential for mass production, persistence, and success of released individuals, and is a central parameter for judging the effectiveness of SIT/IIT programs. Some(More)
The population size, age-class structure, and movement of the American cockroach, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), were studied in three sewers in Penang, Malaysia, from September 2008 to October 2009. Eighteen to 20 glass-jar traps (two per manhole) were deployed for a 24-h period during each sampling occasion at each sewer. Adults and(More)
It is important to obtain frequent measurements of the abundance, distribution, and seasonality of mosquito vectors to determine the risk of disease transmission. The number of cases of dengue infection has increased in recent years on Penang Island, Malaysia, with recurring epidemics. However, ongoing control attempts are being critically hampered by the(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) to control American cockroaches, Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae), in sewer manholes and in crevices around buildings. Parasitoids were released weekly for 12 wk from laboratory parasitized heat-killed oothecae, and(More)
Annually, 4.5 trillion cigarette butts (CBs) are flicked into our environment. Evidence exists that CB waste is deadly to aquatic life, but their lethality to the aquatic life of the main dengue vector is unknown. CBs are full of toxicants that occur naturally, during planting and manufacturing, which may act as larvicidal agents. We assessed Aedes aegypti(More)
Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health(More)
The objective of this study was to evaluate the suitability of heat- and freeze-killed oothecae of Periplaneta americana (L.) (Dictyoptera: Blattidae) as hosts for parasitoid Aprostocetus hagenowii (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae). The oothecae were subjected to -20, 45, 48, 50, and 55 degrees C at different exposure times (15, 30, 45, and 60 min). The(More)
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