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BACKGROUND Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) induce reverse remodeling of the failing heart except for the extracellular matrix, which exhibits additional pathophysiological changes, although their mechanisms and functional consequences are unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS Hearts were obtained at transplant from patients with idiopathic dilated(More)
Tissue angiotensin generation depends on the uptake of circulating (kidney-derived) renin and/or its precursor prorenin [together denoted as (pro)renin]. Since tissue renin levels are usually somewhat higher than expected based upon the amount of (renin-containing) blood in tissue, an active uptake mechanism has been proposed. Several candidates have been(More)
Urinary exosomes are vesicles derived from renal tubular epithelial cells. Exosomes often contain several disease-associated proteins and are thus useful targets for identifying biomarkers of disease. Here, we hypothesized that the phosphorylated (active) form of the sodium chloride cotransporter (pNCC) or prostasin could serve as biomarkers for(More)
The discovery of a (pro)renin receptor [(P)RR] and the introduction of renin inhibitors in the clinic have brought renin and prorenin back into the spotlight. The (P)RR binds both renin and its inactive precursor prorenin, and such binding triggers intracellular signalling that upregulates the expression of profibrotic genes, potentially leading to cardiac(More)
To investigate the mediators of bradykinin-induced vasorelaxation in human coronary microarteries (HCMAs), HCMAs (diameter approximately 300 microm) obtained from 42 heart valve donors (20 men and 22 women; age range, 3 to 65 years; mean age, 46 years) were mounted in Mulvany myographs. In the presence of the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin,(More)
OBJECTIVES We hypothesized that angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACE-I) during left ventricular assist device (LVAD) support in patients with end-stage heart failure prevents potentially deleterious effects on the extracellular matrix. BACKGROUND Left ventricular assist device-induced mechanical unloading increases myocardial collagen and(More)
Angiotensin II activates two distinct receptors, the angiotensin II receptors type 1 (AT(1)) and type 2 (AT(2)). In rodents, two AT(1) subtypes were identified (AT(1a) and AT(1b)). To determine receptor-specific functions and possible angiotensin II effects independent of its three known receptors we generated mice deficient in either one of the angiotensin(More)
BACKGROUND The blood pressure-lowering effect of the renin inhibitor aliskiren equals that of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin (Ang) II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockers. Whether aliskiren offers end-organ protection remains to be investigated. Here, we compared the cardiac effects of aliskiren, the AT1 receptor blocker irbesartan(More)
BACKGROUND Angiotensin (Ang) II type 2 (AT2) receptor stimulation results in coronary vasodilation in the rat heart. In contrast, AT2 receptor-mediated vasodilation could not be observed in large human coronary arteries. We studied Ang II-induced vasodilation of human coronary microarteries (HCMAs). METHODS AND RESULTS HCMAs (diameter, 160 to 500 microm)(More)
Somatic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) contains 2 domains (C-domain and N-domain) capable of hydrolyzing angiotensin I (Ang I) and bradykinin. Here we investigated the effect of the selective C-domain and N-domain inhibitors RXPA380 and RXP407 on Ang I-induced vasoconstriction of porcine femoral arteries (PFAs) and bradykinin-induced vasodilation of(More)