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Bacillus subtilis is the best-characterized member of the Gram-positive bacteria. Its genome of 4,214,810 base pairs comprises 4,100 protein-coding genes. Of these protein-coding genes, 53% are represented once, while a quarter of the genome corresponds to several gene families that have been greatly expanded by gene duplication, the largest family(More)
To estimate the minimal gene set required to sustain bacterial life in nutritious conditions, we carried out a systematic inactivation of Bacillus subtilis genes. Among approximately 4,100 genes of the organism, only 192 were shown to be indispensable by this or previous work. Another 79 genes were predicted to be essential. The vast majority of essential(More)
BACKGROUND In global gene expression profiling experiments, variation in the expression of genes of interest can often be hidden by general noise. To determine how biologically significant variation can be distinguished under such conditions we have analyzed the differences in gene expression when Bacillus subtilis is grown either on methionine or on(More)
Living organisms are composed of macromolecules made of hydrogen, carbon, nitrogen, oxygen, phosphorus and sulfur. Much work has been devoted to the metabolism of the first five elements, but much remains to be understood about sulfur metabolism. We review here the situation in Escherichia coli and related bacteria, where more than one hundred genes(More)
Comparative genomics is the cornerstone of identification of gene functions. The immense number of living organisms precludes experimental identification of functions except in a handful of model organisms. The bacterial domain is split into large branches, among which the Firmicutes occupy a considerable space. Bacillus subtilis has been the model of(More)
Bacillus subtilis synthesizes polyamines by decarboxylating arginine to agmatine, which is subsequently hydrolysed to putrescine. Spermidine is synthesized from putrescine and decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (dAdoMet). In Gram-negative bacteria and in eukaryotes, AdoMet is decarboxylated by an unusual 'pyruvoyl' AdoMet decarboxylase (SpeD), the(More)
BACKGROUND The thiomethyl group of S-adenosylmethionine is often recycled as methionine from methylthioadenosine. The corresponding pathway has been unravelled in Bacillus subtilis. However methylthioadenosine is subjected to alternative degradative pathways depending on the organism. RESULTS This work uses genome in silico analysis to propose methionine(More)
BACKGROUND Polyamine synthesis produces methylthioadenosine, which has to be disposed of. The cell recycles it into methionine through methylthioribose (MTR). Very little was known about MTR recycling for methionine salvage in Bacillus subtilis. RESULTS Using in silico genome analysis and transposon mutagenesis in B. subtilis we have experimentally(More)
Genome annotation requires explicit identification of gene function. This task frequently uses protein sequence alignments with examples having a known function. Genetic drift, co-evolution of subunits in protein complexes and a variety of other constraints interfere with the relevance of alignments. Using a specific class of proteins, it is shown that a(More)
Taking trimethoprim as the selective agent in the presence of thymine, we adapted to Bacillus subtilis a selection procedure depending on the peculiar organisation of the one-carbon metabolism. The corresponding pathways couple synthesis of thymine to tetrahydrofolate consumption as a substrate of the reaction mediated by thymidylate synthase, instead of(More)