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Although considered to be an extracellular pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus is able to invade a variety of mammalian, non-professional phagocytes and can also survive engulfment by professional phagocytes such as neutrophils and monocytes. In both of these cell types S. aureus promptly escapes from the endosomes/phagosomes and proliferates within the(More)
It is becoming increasingly apparent that Staphylococcus aureus are able to survive engulfment by macrophages, and that the intracellular environment of these host cells, which is essential to innate host defenses against invading microorganisms, may in fact provide a refuge for staphylococcal survival and dissemination. Based on this, we postulated that S.(More)
After phagocytosis by macrophages, Staphylococcus aureus evades killing in an α-toxin-dependent manner, and then prevents apoptosis of infected cells by upregulating expression of antiapoptotic genes like MCL-1 (myeloid cell leukemia-1). Here, using purified α-toxin and a set of hla-deficient strains, we show that α-toxin is critical for the induction of(More)
As a facultative intracellular pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus invades macrophages and then promotes the cytoprotection of infected cells thus stabilizing safe niche for silent persistence. This process occurs through the upregulation of crucial antiapoptotic genes, in particular, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1). Here, we investigated the underlying(More)
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