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T cell-mediated immune responses play an important role in the containment of HIV-1 replication. Therefore, an effective vaccine against HIV-1 should be able to elicit high frequencies of virus-specific CD8(+) and CD4(+) T cells. The highly attenuated poxvirus-based vaccine candidate, NYVAC-SIV-gag-pol-env (NYVAC-SIV-gpe), has been shown to induce and/or(More)
According to their capacity to replicate in vitro, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) isolates can be divided into two major groups, rapid/high and slow/low. Rapid/high viruses can easily be transmitted to a variety of cell lines of T-lymphoid (CEM, H9, and Jurkat) and monocytoid (U937) origin. In contrast, slow/low viruses replicate transiently, if at all,(More)
We used optimized DNA expression vectors to compare two gene delivery methodologies in rhesus macaques, namely direct DNA injection and in vivo adaptive constant-current electroporation via the intramuscular route. The use of in vivo electroporation increased levels of gene expression and immune responses. We used an optimized HIV gag expression plasmid to(More)
Optimized DNA vectors were constructed comprising the proteome of SIV including the structural, enzymatic, regulatory, and accessory proteins. In addition to native antigens as produced by the virus, fusion proteins and modified antigens with altered secretion, cellular localization and stability characteristics were generated. The DNA vectors were tested(More)
We have tested the efficacy of DNA immunization as a single vaccination modality for rhesus macaques followed by highly pathogenic SIVmac251 challenge. To further improve immunogenicity of the native proteins, we generated expression vectors producing fusion of the proteins Gag and Env to the secreted chemokine MCP3, targeting the viral proteins to the(More)
We have previously shown that macaques vaccinated with DNA vectors expressing SIVmac239 antigens developed potent immune responses able to reduce viremia upon high-dose SIVmac251 challenge. To further improve vaccine-induced immunity and protection, we combined the SIVmac239 DNA vaccine with protein immunization using inactivated SIVmac239 viral particles(More)
Optimized plasmid DNAs encoding the majority of SIVmac239 proteins and delivered by electroporation (EP) elicited strong immune responses in rhesus macaques. Vaccination decreased viremia in both the acute and chronic phases of infection after challenge with pathogenic SIVmac251. Two groups of macaques were vaccinated with DNA plasmids producing different(More)
Intramuscular injection of macaques with an IL-12 expression plasmid (0.1 or 0.4 mg DNA/animal) optimized for high level of expression and delivered using in vivo electroporation, resulted in the detection of systemic IL-12 cytokine in the plasma. Peak levels obtained by day 4-5 post injection were paralleled by a rapid increase of IFN-γ, indicating(More)
Four major neutralizing regions of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope glycoprotein were identified and characterized with a panel of 80 HIV-1 antibody-positive human sera. Levels of neutralizing antibodies against the HIV-1 strains IIIB, SF2, and RF were compared with reactivity in ELISAs against peptides that correspond to certain(More)
In the present report, we have studied the in vitro transition of normal blood monocytes to macrophages by changes in cell morphology, and the expression of surface antigens with a panel of monoclonal antibodies. The maturation process was accompanied by notable changes in cell-surface markers in a time-dependent manner. The percentage of cells expressing(More)