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The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which(More)
Current teaching states that when sodium intake is increased from low to high levels, total-body sodium (TBNa) and water increase until daily sodium excretion again equals intake. When sodium intake is reduced, sodium excretion briefly exceeds intake until the excess TBNa and water are eliminated, at which point sodium excretion again equals intake.(More)
Activation of the nuclear transcription factor κB (NF-κB) regulates the expression of inflammatory genes crucially involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. NF-κB governs the expression of adhesion molecules that play a pivotal role in leukocyte-endothelium interactions. We uncovered the crucial role of NF-κB activation within endothelial cells(More)
Methionine has been shown to increase plasma cholesterol in animals. In the present study, mechanisms were investigated by which methionine could alter cholesterol metabolism. In the first experiment, forty growing rats were fed four casein-based diets differing in methionine content (2.6, 3.5, 4.5 or 6.0 g/kg) for 14 d. In the second experiment, isolated(More)
The steady-state concept of Na(+) homeostasis, based on short-term investigations of responses to high salt intake, maintains that dietary Na(+) is rapidly eliminated into urine, thereby achieving constant total-body Na(+) and water content. We introduced the reverse experimental approach by fixing salt intake of men participating in space flight(More)
Cultured chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) as well as mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts secrete substantial amounts of thymidine into the medium. The rate of secretion is maximal when the cells become confluent. In the medium of confluent primary cultures of CEF up to 10 microM thymidine was measured. Lower concentrations (1 to 2 microM) were found in media of(More)
Immune cells regulate a hypertonic microenvironment in the skin; however, the biological advantage of increased skin Na(+) concentrations is unknown. We found that Na(+) accumulated at the site of bacterial skin infections in humans and in mice. We used the protozoan parasite Leishmania major as a model of skin-prone macrophage infection to test the(More)
Short-term exposure to ethanol impairs glucose homeostasis, but the effects of ethanol on individual components of the glucose disposal pathway are not known. To understand the mechanisms by which ethanol disrupts glucose homeostasis, we have investigated the direct effects of ethanol on glucose uptake and translocation of GLUT-4 in H9c2 myotubes.(More)
A high intake of dietary salt (NaCl) has been implicated in the development of hypertension, chronic inflammation, and autoimmune diseases. We have recently shown that salt has a proinflammatory effect and boosts the activation of Th17 cells and the activation of classical, LPS-induced macrophages (M1). Here, we examined how the activation of alternative(More)
Besides their role in immune system host defense, there is growing evidence that macrophages may also be important regulators of salt homeostasis and blood pressure by a TonEBP-VEGF-C dependent buffering mechanism. As macrophages are known to accumulate in the skin of rats fed under high salt diet conditions and are pivotal for removal of high salt storage,(More)