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Overproduction of mucus is a central feature of asthma. The cytokine, IL-13, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), and transcription factor, FOXA2, have each been implicated in mucus production, but the mechanistic relationships between these molecules are not yet well understood. To address this, we established a primary normal human bronchial(More)
RATIONALE Macrophages are believed to play a central role in emphysema based largely on data from mouse models. However, the relevance of these models to smoking-related lung disease in humans is uncertain. OBJECTIVES We sought to comprehensively characterize the effects of smoking on gene expression in human alveolar macrophages and to compare these with(More)
Preeclampsia (PE), which affects 4-8% of human pregnancies, causes significant maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Within the basal plate, placental cytotrophoblasts (CTBs) of fetal origin invade the uterus and extensively remodel the maternal vasculature. In PE, CTB invasion is often shallow, and vascular remodeling is rudimentary. To better(More)
We report here the results of the analytical validation of assays that measure HER2 total protein (H2T) and HER2 homodimer (H2D) expression in Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded (FFPE) breast cancer tumors as well as cell line controls. The assays are based on the VeraTag technology platform and are commercially available through a central CAP-accredited(More)
The accuracy and reliability of immunohistochemical analysis and in situ hybridization for the assessment of HER2 status remains a subject of debate. We developed a novel assay (HERmark Breast Cancer Assay, Monogram Biosciences, South San Francisco, CA) that provides precise quantification of total HER2 protein expression (H2T) and HER2 homodimers (H2D) in(More)
AIMS Animal studies show that transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) is an important mediator of atrial fibrosis and atrial fibrillation (AF). This study investigated the role of TGF-β1 in human AF and the mechanism of atrial-selective fibrosis. METHODS AND RESULTS Atrial specimens from 17 open heart surgery patients and left atrial and ventricular(More)
Trastuzumab is effective in the treatment of HER2/neu over-expressing breast cancer, but not all patients benefit from it. In vitro data suggest a role for HER3 in the initiation of signaling activity involving the AKT–mTOR pathway leading to trastuzumab insensitivity. We sought to investigate the potential of HER3 alone and in the context of p95HER2 (p95),(More)
Differential gene expression by integrin β7 + and β7-memory T helper cells Abstract Background: The cell adhesion molecule integrin α4β7 helps direct the migration of blood lymphocytes to the intestine and associated lymphoid tissues. We hypothesized that β7 + and β7-blood memory T helper cells differ in their expression of genes that play a role in the(More)
The regulated recruitment and differentiation of multipotent bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to sites of injury are critical for efficient wound healing. Previously we demonstrated that sustained expression of HOXA3 both accelerated wound healing and promoted angiogenesis in diabetic mice. In this study, we have used green fluorescent protein-positive(More)
Purpose: P95HER2 (p95) is a truncated form of the HER2, which lacks the trastuzumab-binding site and contains a hyperactive kinase domain. Previously, an optimal clinical cutoff of p95 expression for progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) was defined using a quantitative VeraTag assay (Monogram Biosciences) in a training set of(More)