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ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Drug resistance in malaria is a recurring subject that threatens public health globally. There is an urgent need to seek new antimalarial agents. This study seeking new antimalarials from medicinal plants is guided by ethnobotany. MATERIALS AND METHODS Medicinal plants of the Luo and Kuria ethnic groups of Kenya with high(More)
In vitro drug sensitivity and molecular analyses of Plasmodium falciparum track drug resistance. DNA-binding fluorescent dyes like SYBR Green I may allow field laboratories, proximal to P. falciparum collection sites, to conduct drug assays. In 2007-2008, we assayed 121 P. falciparum field isolates from western Kenya for 50% inhibitory concentrations(More)
The malaria SYBR green assay, which is used to profilein vitrodrug susceptibility ofPlasmodium falciparum, is a reliable drug screening and surveillance tool. Malaria field surveillance efforts provide isolates with various low levels of parasitemia. To be advantageous, malaria drug sensitivity assays should perform reproducibly among various starting(More)
Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) in the Pfmdr1, and Pfcrt, genes of Plasmodium falciparum may confer resistance to a number of anti-malaria drugs. Pfmdr1 86Y and haplotypes at Pfcrt 72-76 have been linked to chloroquine (CQ) as well as amodiaquine (AQ) resistance. mefloquine (MQ) and lumefantrine (LU) sensitivities are linked to Pfmdr1 86Y.(More)
The Plasmodium falciparum in vitro culture system is critical for genotypic and phenotypic analyses of the parasites. For genotypic analysis, the genomic DNA can be obtained directly from the patient blood sample or from culture adapted parasites whereas for phenotypic analysis, immediate ex vivo or in vitro culture adapted parasites are used. However,(More)
Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP), an antifolate, was replaced by artemether-lumefantrine as the first-line malaria drug treatment in Kenya in 2004 due to the wide spread of resistance. However, SP still remains the recommended drug for intermittent preventive treatment in pregnant women and infants (IPTP/I) owing to its safety profile. This study assessed(More)
In combination with antibiotics, quinine is recommended as the second-line treatment for uncomplicated malaria, an alternative first-line treatment for severe malaria, and for treatment of malaria in the first trimester of pregnancy. Quinine has been shown to have frequent clinical failures, and yet the mechanisms of action and resistance have not been(More)
Genetic analysis of molecular markers is critical in tracking the emergence and/or spread of artemisinin resistant parasites. Clinical isolates collected in western Kenya pre- and post- introduction of artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs) were genotyped at SNP positions in regions of strong selection signatures on chromosome 13 and 14, as described in(More)
Doxycycline is widely used for malaria prophylaxis by international travelers. However, there is limited information on doxycycline efficacy in Kenya, and genetic polymorphisms associated with reduced efficacy are not well defined. In vitro doxycycline susceptibility profiles for 96 Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kenya were determined. Genetic(More)
BACKGROUND The renewed malaria eradication efforts require an understanding of the seasonal patterns of frequency of polymorphic variants in order to focus limited funds productively. Although cross-sectional studies in holoendemic areas spanning a single year could be useful in describing parasite genotype status at a given point, such information is(More)