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1. Upper eyelid position and velocity, and the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle, were recorded bilaterally in alert cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and conditioned eyelid movements. 2. Spontaneous blinks appeared randomly (0.2-0.5 per min) and consisted of a fast, large downward lid movement followed by a slower(More)
Eyelid position and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle were recorded unilaterally in rabbits during reflex and conditioned blinks. Air-puff-evoked blinks consisted of a fast downward phase followed sometimes by successive downward sags. The reopening phase had a much longer duration and slower peak velocity. Onset latency,(More)
The discharge profiles of identified abducens, accessory abducens, and orbicularis oculi motoneurons have been recorded extra- and intracellularly in alert behaving cats during spontaneous, reflexively evoked, and classically conditioned eyelid responses. The movement of the upper lid and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle also(More)
Long-term potentiation (LTP) phenomenon is widely accepted as a cellular model of memory consolidation. Object recognition (OR) is a particularly useful way of studying declarative memory in rodents because it makes use of their innate preference for novel over familiar objects. In this study, mice had electrodes implanted in the hippocampal Schaffer(More)
Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been successfully applied for modulation of cortical excitability. tDCS is capable of inducing changes in neuronal membrane potentials in a polarity-dependent manner. When tDCS is of sufficient length, synaptically driven after-effects are induced. The(More)
Quantal organization of reflex and conditioned eyelid responses. J. Neurophysiol. 78: 2518-2530, 1997. Upper lid movements and the electromyographic activity of the orbicularis oculi muscle were recorded in behaving cats during spontaneous and experimentally evoked reflex blinks, and conditioned eyelid responses. Reflex blinks evoked by the presentation of(More)
Cerebellar posterior interpositus neurons were recorded in cats during delayed and trace conditioning of eyeblinks. Type A neurons increased their firing in the time interval between conditioned and unconditioned stimulus presentations for both paradigms, while type B neurons decreased it. The discharge of different type A neurons recorded across successive(More)
One of the most widely used experimental models for the study of learning processes in mammals has been the classical conditioning of nictitating membrane/eyelid responses, using both trace and delay paradigms. Mainly on the basis of permanent or transitory lesions of putatively-involved structures, and using other stimulation and recording techniques, it(More)
On the basis of stimulation and permanent or transient lesions of putatively involved structures, and using transgenic mice with defective functional circuits, it has been proposed that cerebellar cortex and/or nuclei could be the sites where classically conditioned nictitating membrane/eyelid responses are acquired and stored. Here, we review recent(More)
Mental retardation in Down syndrome (DS), the most frequent trisomy in humans, varies from moderate to severe. Several studies both in human and based on mouse models identified some regions of human chromosome 21 (Hsa21) as linked to cognitive deficits. However, other intervals such as the telomeric region of Hsa21 may contribute to the DS phenotype but(More)