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BACKGROUND Throughout the primary literature and within textbooks, the erythrocyte has been tacitly accepted to have maintained a unique physiological role; namely gas transport and exchange. In non-mammalian vertebrates, nucleated erythrocytes are present in circulation throughout the life cycle and a fragmented series of observations in mammals support a(More)
Fish macrophage function can be altered after exposure to pathogens as well as to xenobiotics. Considering that wild and farmed fish can be exposed in their habitats simultaneously to different types of stressors, including chemical contaminants (e.g. heavy metals) and pathogens (e.g. bacteria), it is fundamental to study their impact either isolated or in(More)
The present study describes the transcriptional levels of the corticosteroid receptors (CRs) GR1, GR2 and MR in the different organs of the rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in response to a slow release of cortisol, throughout a 10-day period. We show that after short term (1 day after cortisol implantation), when the plasma levels of cortisol emulate an(More)
Vibrio vulnificus is an aquatic gram-negative bacterium that causes a systemic disease in eels called warm-water vibriosis. Natural disease occurs via water born infection; bacteria attach to the gills (the main portal of entry) and spread to the internal organs through the bloodstream, provoking host death by haemorrhagic septicaemia. V. vulnificus(More)
Gilthead seabream (Sparus aurata) and European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax) were subjected to either experimental infection with Photobacterium damselae subsp. piscicida or Nodavirus after a period of 2 weeks of crowding in which fish were subjected to a 5-fold increase in density (10-50 kg/m(3)). Samples were obtained before the crowding period (0 h or(More)
Immunostimulant-containing diets are commonly used in aquaculture to enhance the resistance of cultured fish to disease and stress. Although widespread in use, there have been conflicting results published, and surprisingly little is known about the regulation of immune response-related genes in tissues key to mucosal immunity induced by immunostimulant(More)
Macrophages are phagocytes that have a central role in the organization of the immune system after an infection. These cells can recognize specific molecular components of micro-organisms (pathogen-associated molecular patterns, PAMPs) via specific receptors (PRRs) and elicit specific cellular responses. In the past, the expression of immune genes in(More)
Prostaglandin levels in different tissues and cyclooxygenase (COX-2) gene expression were compared between wild and cultured Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) broodstock in which a significantly different fatty acid profile, particularly lower tissue levels of arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6) and higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3) in(More)
The eel (Anguilla anguilla) has been identified as a vulnerable species with stocks dramatically declining over the past decade. In an effort to support the species from overfishing of wild stocks increased interest in eel aquaculture has been notable. In order to expand the scarce knowledge concerning the biology of this species significant research(More)
Infectious diseases are one of the principal bottlenecks for the European eel recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a new molecular tool to be used in host-pathogen interaction experiments in the eel. To this end, we first stimulated adult eels with different pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), extracted RNA from the immune-related(More)