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Reduced glutathione (L-gamma-glutamyl-L-cysteinyl-glycine, GSH) is the prevalent low-molecular-weight thiol in mammalian cells. It is formed in a two-step enzymatic process including, first, the formation of gamma-glutamylcysteine from glutamate and cysteine, by the activity of the gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase; and second, the formation of GSH by the(More)
Cancer is a multistage and complex process characterized by molecular alterations that underlie all three phases of its development: (i) initiation, (ii) promotion and (iii) progression. Some of these molecular events include alterations in gene expression that are regulated by both genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. On the other hand, "oxidative stress"(More)
The human genome contains at least 17 genes that are members of the aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) superfamily. These genes encode NAD(P)(+)-dependent enzymes that oxidize a wide range of aldehydes to their corresponding carboxylic acids. Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules that are intermediates or products involved in a broad spectrum of physiologic,(More)
Aldehydes are highly reactive molecules that are intermediates or products involved in a broad spectrum of physiologic, biologic and pharmacologic processes. Aldehydes are generated from chemically diverse endogenous and exogenous precursors and aldehyde-mediated effects vary from homeostatic and therapeutic to cytotoxic, and genotoxic. One of the most(More)
ALDH3A1 (aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1) is expressed at high concentrations in the mammalian cornea and it is believed that it protects this vital tissue and the rest of the eye against UV-light-induced damage. The precise biological function(s) and cellular distribution of ALDH3A1 in the corneal tissue remain to be elucidated. Among the hypotheses proposed(More)
Cardiac hypertrophy is the main response of the heart to various extrinsic and intrinsic stimuli, and it is characterized by specific molecular and phenotypic changes. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies indicate the involvement of reactive oxygen species in the hypertrophic response. In this study, silibinin, a plant flavonolignan extracted from milk(More)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is one of the most abundant proteins found in corneal epithelial cells of mammalian species, with several postulated protective roles that include detoxification of peroxidic aldehydes, scavenging of free radicals, and direct absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. In the present study, the protective role of ALDH3A1(More)
The heterodimeric transcription factor HIF-1 (hypoxia-inducible factor 1) represents the key mediator of hypoxia response. HIF-1 controls numerous genes of pivotal importance for cellular metabolism, angiogenesis, cell cycle regulation and inhibition of apoptosis. HIF-1 overexpression and enhanced transcriptional activity are linked to tumour initiation and(More)
Mammalian ALDH7A1 is homologous to plant ALDH7B1, an enzyme that protects against various forms of stress, such as salinity, dehydration, and osmotic stress. It is known that mutations in the human ALDH7A1 gene cause pyridoxine-dependent and folic acid-responsive seizures. Herein, we show for the first time that human ALDH7A1 protects against hyperosmotic(More)
Aldehyde dehydrogenase 3A1 (ALDH3A1) is a NAD(P)+-dependent enzyme that is highly expressed in mammalian corneal epithelial cells and has been shown to protect against UV- and 4-hydroxynonenal-induced cellular damage, mainly by metabolizing toxic lipid peroxidation aldehydes. Here we report a novel function of ALDH3A1 as a negative cell cycle regulator. We(More)