Afzal Siddiqui

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(1) Overview The deployment of small (< 1-2 MW) clusters of generators, heat and electrical storage, efficiency investments, and combined heat and power (CHP) applications (particularly involving heatactivated cooling) in commercial buildings promises significant benefits but poses many technical and financial challenges, both in system choice and its(More)
The U.S. Department of Energy has launched the commercial building initiative (CBI) in pursuit of its research goal of achieving zero-net-energy commercial buildings (ZNEB), i.e. ones that produce as much energy as they use. Its objective is to make these buildings marketable by 2025 such that they minimize their energy use through cutting-edge,(More)
Benefits analysis of US Federal government funded research, development, demonstration, and deployment (RD 3) programmes for renewable energy (RE) technology improvement typically employs a deterministic forecast of the cost and performance of renewable and non-renewable fuels. The benefits estimate for a programme derives from the difference between two(More)
While demand for electricity continues to grow, expansion of the traditional electricity supply system, or macrogrid, is constrained and is unlikely to keep pace with the growing thirst western economies have for electricity. Furthermore, no compelling case has been made that perpetual improvement in the overall power quality and reliability (PQR) delivered(More)
The physical nature of electricity generation and delivery creates special problems for the design of efficient markets, notably the need to manage delivery in real time and the volatile congestion and associated costs that result. Proposals for the operation of the deregulated electricity industry tend towards one of two paradigms: centralized and(More)
Distributed generation (DG) technologies, such as gas-fired reciprocating engines and microturbines, have been found to be economically beneficial in meeting commercial-sector electrical, heating, and cooling loads. Even though the electric-only efficiency of DG is lower than that offered by traditional central stations, combined heat and power (CHP)(More)
The purpose of this work was to evaluate the main and interaction effects of formulation factors on the drug encapsulation efficiency of beta-estradiol biodegradable microspheres by applying response surface methodology. A secondary purpose was to obtain an optimized formula for long-term therapy of osteoporosis. A three factor, three level Box-Behnken(More)
Traditional real options analysis addresses the problem of investment under uncertainty assuming a risk-neutral decision maker and complete markets. In reality, however, decision makers are often risk averse and markets are incomplete. We confirm that risk aversion lowers the probability of investment and demonstrate how this effect can be mitigated by(More)