Afzal N. Chaudhry

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Autoimmune diseases are common and debilitating, but their severe manifestations could be reduced if biomarkers were available to allow individual tailoring of potentially toxic immunosuppressive therapy. Gene expression-based biomarkers facilitating such tailoring of chemotherapy in cancer, but not autoimmunity, have been identified and translated into(More)
BACKGROUND For expression profiling to have a practical impact in the management of immune-related disease it is essential that it can be applied to peripheral blood cells. Early studies have used total peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and as a consequence the majority of the disease-related signatures identified have simply reflected differences in the(More)
Chronic allograft nephropathy (CAN) is the principal cause of late renal allograft failure. This complex process is multifactorial in origin, and there is good evidence for immune-mediated effects. The immune contribution to this process is directed by CD4(+) T cells, which can be activated by either direct or indirect pathways of allorecognition. For the(More)
OBJECTIVE To optimise a strategy for identifying gene expression signatures differentiating systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated vasculitis that provide insight into disease pathogenesis and identify biomarkers. METHODS 44 vasculitis patients, 13 SLE patients and 25 age and sex-matched controls were(More)
BACKGROUND Acute kidney injury (AKI) is an independent risk factor for mortality and is responsible for a significant burden of healthcare expenditure, so accurate measurement of its incidence is important. Administrative coding data has been used for assessing AKI incidence, and shows an increasing proportion of hospital bed days attributable to AKI.(More)
BACKGROUND ACE Inhibitors (ACE-I) and Angiotensin-Receptor Antagonists (ARAs) are commonly prescribed but can cause acute kidney injury (AKI) during intercurrent illness. Rates of hospitalization with AKI are increasing. We aimed to determine whether hospital AKI admission rates are associated with increased ACE-I/ARA prescribing. METHODS AND FINDINGS(More)
BACKGROUND Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) matching strategies for kidney transplantation assign equal weighting to mismatches at a particular locus and take no account of variation in immunogenicity according to recipient HLA type. We examined the ability of intra- and interlocus analysis of amino-acid polymorphisms at continuous (triplet) and discontinuous(More)
BACKGROUND Rituximab is a B cell depleting anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody. CD20 is not expressed on mature plasma cells and accordingly rituximab does not have immediate effects on immunoglobulin levels. However, after rituximab some patients develop hypogammaglobulinaemia. METHODS We performed a single centre retrospective review of 177 patients with(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary haemorrhage (PH) is a serious manifestation of systemic vasculitis with high mortality rates yet vasculitis is associated with an increased prevalence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The concurrent presentation of severe PH and VTE poses a challenge in terms of therapeutic management. METHODS This is a retrospective case review of(More)
BACKGROUND The use of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) in autoimmune disease is often limited by adverse effects. In this single-centre, open label, parallel design study, we investigated whether enteric-coated mycophenolate sodium (MS) is better tolerated and therefore more efficacious than MMF in primary systemic vasculitis (PSV) and systemic lupus(More)