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Mediators of endoplasmic reticulum stress‐induced apoptosis
The efficient functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for most cellular activities and survival. Conditions that interfere with ER function lead to the accumulation and aggregationExpand
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The integrated stress response
In response to diverse stress stimuli, eukaryotic cells activate a common adaptive pathway, termed the integrated stress response (ISR), to restore cellular homeostasis. The core event in thisExpand
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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition)
In 2008 we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, research on this topic has continued to accelerate, and many new scientists have entered theExpand
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Triggering and modulation of apoptosis by oxidative stress.
Cell survival requires multiple factors, including appropriate proportions of molecular oxygen and various antioxidants. Although most oxidative insults can be overcome by the cell's naturalExpand
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Cellular Stress Responses: Cell Survival and Cell Death
Cells can respond to stress in various ways ranging from the activation of survival pathways to the initiation of cell death that eventually eliminates damaged cells. Whether cells mount a protectiveExpand
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The eIF2α kinases: their structures and functions
Cell signaling in response to an array of diverse stress stimuli converges on the phosphorylation of the α-subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2). Phosphorylation of eIF2α on serine 51Expand
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On the role of Hsp27 in regulating apoptosis
Heat shock proteins (Hsps) comprise several different families of proteins that are induced in response to a wide variety of physiological and environmental insults. One such protein which is highlyExpand
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PERK is required at the ER-mitochondrial contact sites to convey apoptosis after ROS-based ER stress
Endoplasmic reticulum stress is emerging as an important modulator of different pathologies and as a mechanism contributing to cancer cell death in response to therapeutic agents. In severalExpand
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Bcl-2 family on guard at the ER.
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main site for protein folding, lipid biosynthesis, and calcium storage in the cell. Disturbances of these critical cellular functions lead to ER stress. The ERExpand
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Methods for Monitoring Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Unfolded Protein Response
The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the site of folding of membrane and secreted proteins in the cell. Physiological or pathological processes that disturb protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulumExpand
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