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INTRODUCTION The goal of hypospadias surgery is to provide a functionally and cosmetically normal penis. Whether this goal will be to the patient's satisfaction depends largely on the original anatomy, surgical technique and surgeon's experience. It has been suggested that androgen administration is associated with better outcomes in hypospadias repair;(More)
PURPOSE Despite the benefits of the minimally invasive endoscopic treatment for vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) it has a major drawback which is low success rate in high grade VUR. For overcoming this problem, we introduce a new modified technique of endoscopic treatment called periureteral injection technique (PIT). MATERIALS AND METHODS In a prospective(More)
Phototherapy is the most common, most effective, and least dangerous treatment method for neonatal hyperbilirubinemia and is the treatment of the first choice for neonatal icterus. Hypocalcemia is one of the lesser-known complications of phototherapy. Some studies have shown a relationship between increased urinary calcium excretion and phototherapy-induced(More)
In order to recognize of DKA and its complications among children with DM type I, we conducted a descriptive study and all of the children with the final diagnosis of DKA. Data regarding their demographics, disease characteristics, treatment features and outcome derived from patients' medical files and registered in a data sheet. Data were analyzed using(More)
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