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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
Throughout adulthood, new neurons are continuously added to the dentate gyrus, a hippocampal subregion that is important in spatial learning. Whether these adult-generated granule cells become functionally integrated into memory networks is not known. We used immunohistochemical approaches to visualize the recruitment of new neurons into circuits supporting(More)
In the hippocampus, the production of dentate granule cells (DGCs) persists into adulthood. As adult-generated neurons are thought to contribute to hippocampal memory processing, promoting adult neurogenesis therefore offers the potential for restoring mnemonic function in the aged or diseased brain. Within this regenerative context, one key issue is(More)
Mutations in myosin XV are responsible for congenital profound deafness DFNB3 in humans and deafness and vestibular defects in shaker 2 mice. By combining direct cDNA analyses with a comparison of 95.2 kb of genomic DNA sequence from human chromosome 17p11.2 and 88.4 kb from the homologous region on mouse chromosome 11, we have determined the genomic and(More)
DFNB3, a locus for nonsyndromic sensorineural recessive deafness, maps to a 3-centimorgan interval on human chromosome 17p11.2, a region that shows conserved synteny with mouse shaker-2. A human unconventional myosin gene, MYO15, was identified by combining functional and positional cloning approaches in searching for shaker-2 and DFNB3. MYO15 has at least(More)
New neurons are continuously generated in the subgranular zone of the hippocampus throughout adulthood, and there is increasing interest as to whether these new neurons become functionally integrated into memory circuits. This protocol describes the immunohistochemical procedures to visualize the recruitment of new neurons into circuits supporting spatial(More)
Mineral deposits on the martian surface can elucidate ancient environmental conditions on the planet. Opaline silica deposits (as much as 91 weight percent SiO2) have been found in association with volcanic materials by the Mars rover Spirit. The deposits are present both as light-toned soils and as bedrock. We interpret these materials to have formed under(More)
The shaker-2 mouse mutation, the homolog of human DFNB3, causes deafness and circling behavior. A bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) transgene from the shaker-2 critical region corrected the vestibular defects, deafness, and inner ear morphology of shaker-2 mice. An unconventional myosin gene, Myo15, was discovered by DNA sequencing of this BAC. Shaker-2(More)
The Spirit landing site in Gusev Crater on Mars contains dark, fine-grained, vesicular rocks interpreted as lavas. Pancam and Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES) spectra suggest that all of these rocks are similar but have variable coatings and dust mantles. Magnified images of brushed and abraded rock surfaces show alteration rinds and veins.(More)