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The symbiotic microbiota profoundly affect many aspects of host physiology; however, the molecular mechanisms underlying host-microbe cross-talk are largely unknown. Here, we show that the pyrroloquinoline quinone-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase (PQQ-ADH) activity of a commensal bacterium, Acetobacter pomorum, modulates insulin/insulin-like growth factor(More)
By searching a database of expressed sequences, we identified a member of the signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) family of proteins. Human and murine full-length cDNA clones were obtained and sequenced. The sequence of the human cDNA was identical to the recently published sequence for interleukin-4 (IL-4)-Stat (J. Hou, U. Schindler,(More)
Histone acetyltransferases are associated with the elongating RNA polymerase II (Pol II) complex, supporting the idea that histone acetylation and transcription are intertwined mechanistically in gene coding sequences. Here, we studied the establishment and function of histone acetylation and transcription in noncoding sequences by using a model locus(More)
BACKGROUND Allium sativum., commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus (Allium), which is a large and diverse one containing over 1,250 species. Its close relatives include chives, onion, leek and shallot. Garlic has been used throughout recorded history for culinary, medicinal use and health benefits. Currently, the interest in garlic is(More)
The establishment of epigenetic marks, such as methylation on histone tails, is mechanistically linked to RNA polymerase II within active genes. To explore the interplay between these modifications in transcribed noncoding as well as coding sequences, we analyzed epigenetic modification and chromatin structure at high resolution across 300 kb of human(More)
Gene activation requires alteration of chromatin structure to facilitate active transcription complex formation at a gene promoter. Nucleosome remodeling complexes and histone modifying complexes each play unique and interdependent roles in bringing about these changes. The role of distant enhancers in these structural alterations is not well understood. We(More)
Locus control regions are regulatory elements that activate distant genes and typically consist of several DNase I hypersensitive sites coincident with clusters of transcription activator binding sites. To what extent nucleosomes and activators occupy these sites together or exclusively has not been extensively studied in vivo. We analyzed the chromatin(More)
In economics and political science, the theoretical literature on social choice routinely highlights worst-case scenarios and emphasizes the nonexistence of a universally best voting method. Behavioral social choice is grounded in psychology and tackles consensus methods descriptively and empirically. We analyzed four elections of the American Psychological(More)
Microfluidics can provide unique experimental tools to visualize the development of neural structures within a microscale device, which is followed by guidance of neurite growth in the axonal isolation compartment. We utilized microfluidics technology to monitor the differentiation and migration of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells(More)
TAL1 is a key hematopoietic transcription factor that binds to regulatory regions of a large cohort of erythroid genes as part of a complex with GATA-1, LMO2 and Ldb1. The complex mediates long-range interaction between the β-globin locus control region (LCR) and active globin genes, and although TAL1 is one of the two DNA-binding complex members, its role(More)