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The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors is essential for the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, but can also induce regulatory pathways. NF-κB can be activated via two distinct pathways: the classical or canonical pathway, and the alternative or non-canonical pathway. It is well established that the canonical NF-κB pathway is(More)
Angiogenesis is essential during development and in pathological conditions such as chronic inflammation and cancer progression. Inhibition of angiogenesis by targeting vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) blocks disease progression, but most patients eventually develop resistance which may result from compensatory signalling pathways. In endothelial(More)
Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) in chronic inflammation, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue (ST), often contain high endothelial venules and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Endothelial cell (EC)-specific lymphotoxin β (LTβ) receptor signaling is critical for the formation of lymph nodes and high endothelial venules. FDCs arise from(More)
OBJECTIVE The nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) family of transcription factors is strongly involved in synovial inflammation. We have previously shown that NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) is a key regulator of inflammation-induced angiogenesis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue (ST). Here, we investigated synovial NIK expression in patients with early(More)
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