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A key question concerns the extent to which sexual differentiation of human behavior is influenced by sex hormones present during sensitive periods of development (organizational effects), as occurs in other mammalian species. The most important sensitive period has been considered to be prenatal, but there is increasing attention to puberty as another(More)
There is considerable controversy about the origins of sex differences in cognitive abilities, particularly the male superiority in spatial abilities. We studied effects of early androgens on spatial and mechanical abilities in adolescents and young adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). On tests of three-dimensional mental rotations, geography,(More)
There is considerable interest in the organizational effects of pubertal sex hormones on human sex-related characteristics. Recent evidence from rodents suggests that there is a decreasing window of sensitivity to sex hormones throughout adolescence. If adolescence also represents a period of brain organization in human beings, then the timing of exposure(More)
Research on the role of puberty in adolescent psychological development requires attention to the meaning and measurement of pubertal development. Particular questions concern the utility of self-report, the need for complex models to describe pubertal development, the psychological significance of pubertal timing vs. tempo, and sex differences in the(More)
Most connectivity mapping techniques for neuroimaging data assume stationarity (i.e., network parameters are constant across time), but this assumption does not always hold true. The authors provide a description of a new approach for simultaneously detecting time-varying (or dynamic) contemporaneous and lagged relations in brain connectivity maps.(More)
There is considerable interest in understanding women's underrepresentation in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics careers. Career choices have been shown to be driven in part by interests, and gender differences in those interests have generally been considered to result from socialization. We explored the contribution of sex hormones to(More)
The upsurge in alcohol use that often occurs during the first year of college has been convincingly linked to a number of negative psychosocial consequences and may negatively affect brain development. In this longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) pilot study, we examined changes in neural responses to alcohol cues across the first year(More)
Genetic influences on adolescent psychological development are likely to be mediated and moderated by pubertal hormones. Combining genetic analyses with advanced models of pubertal development, we extended work on the measurement and psychological significance of puberty. We examined how genetic and environmental influences on puberty vary by the way that(More)
A posteriori model validation for the temporal order of neural directed functional connectivity maps is rare. This is striking because models that require sequential independence among residuals are regularly implemented. The aim of the current study was (a) to apply to directed functional connectivity maps of functional magnetic resonance imaging data an a(More)
This article is part of a Special Issue "Estradiol and cognition". Estrogens have been seen to play a role in human cognitive abilities, but questions remain about the cognitive impact of ethinyl estradiol, which is contained in many oral contraceptives (OCs). Inconsistencies in past studies likely reflect small samples and heterogeneous groups of OC users.(More)