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BACKGROUND The "Multidisciplinary Approach to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain" (MAPP) Research Network was established by the NIDDK to better understand the pathophysiology of urologic chronic pelvic pain syndromes (UCPPS), to inform future clinical trials and improve clinical care. The evolution, organization, and scientific scope of the MAPP Research(More)
Transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsies often fail to diagnose prostate cancer with 90% of cores reported as benign. Thus, it is desirable to target prostate cancer lesions while reducing the sampling of benign tissue. The concentrations of natural fluorophores in prostate tissue fluctuate with disease states. Hence, fluorescence spectroscopy could(More)
BACKGROUND Expression of the hTERT gene, which codes for the catalytic subunit of telomerase, is associated with malignancy. We recently developed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR assay, based on TaqMan technology, for accurate and reproducible determination of hTERT mRNA expression (Lab Investig 1999;79:911-2). This method may be of interest for(More)
The progression of carcinomas is associated with the loss of epithelial morphology and a concomitant acquisition of a more mesenchymal phenotype, which in turn is thought to contribute to the invasive and/or metastatic behavior of the malignant process. Changes in the expression of cadherins, "cadherin switching," plays a critical role during embryogenesis,(More)
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths in the Western male population. Despite the tremendous efforts that have been made to improve the early detection of this disease and to design new treatment modalities, there is still an urgent need for new markers and therapeutic targets for the(More)
Dysregulation of HOX gene expression has been implicated as a factor in malignancies for a number of years. However, no consensus has emerged regarding specific causative genes. Using a degenerate reverse transcription-PCR technique, we show up-regulation of genes from the HOXC cluster in malignant prostate cell lines and lymph node metastases. When(More)
Cadmium, a widespread toxic pollutant of occupational and environmental concern, is a known human carcinogen. The prostate is a potential target for cadmium carcinogenesis, although the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Furthermore, cadmium may induce cell death by apoptosis in various cell types, and it has been hypothesized that a key factor in(More)
Cyclin-dependent kinase-4 inhibitor gene (p16INK4) has recently been mapped to chromosome 9p21. Homozygous deletions of this gene have been found at high frequency in cell lines derived from different types of tumours. These findings suggested therefore, that p16INK4 is a tumour-suppressor gene involved in a wide variety of human cancers. To investigate the(More)
In many carcinomas, E-cadherin is considered to be a prognostic marker for patient survivals, and its decreased expression is associated with metastatic disease. Among renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), however, only 20% of tumors express E-cadherin, whereas a much higher percentage express other cadherins, e.g., N-cadherin and cadherin-6 (T. Shimazui et al,(More)
BACKGROUND Primary prostate cancers are infiltrated with programmed death-1 (PD-1) expressing CD8+ T-cells. However, in early clinical trials, men with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer did not respond to PD-1 blockade as a monotherapy. One explanation for this unresponsiveness could be that prostate tumors generally do not express programmed(More)