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Soluble amyloid β-peptide oligomers (AβOs), increasingly recognized as causative agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupt neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis and synaptic function. Here, we report that AβOs at sublethal concentrations generate prolonged Ca(2+) signals in primary hippocampal neurons; incubation in Ca(2+)-free solutions, inhibition of ryanodine(More)
Cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease (AD) is increasingly attributed to the neuronal impact of soluble oligomers of the amyloid-β peptide (AβOs). Current knowledge on the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the toxicity of AβOs stems largely from rodent-derived cell/tissue culture experiments or from transgenic models of AD, which do not(More)
Brain accumulation of soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) has been implicated in synapse failure and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how oligomers of different sizes induce synapse dysfunction is a matter of controversy. Here, we report that low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) Aβ oligomers(More)
Protein aggregation and amyloid accumulation in different tissues are associated with cellular dysfunction and toxicity in important human pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease and various forms of systemic amyloidosis. Soluble oligomers formed at the early stages of protein aggregation have been increasingly recognized as the main toxic species in(More)
Pancreatic amyloid plaques formed by the pancreatic islet amyloid polypeptide (IAPP) are present in more than 95% of type II diabetes mellitus patients, and their abundance correlates with the severity of the disease. IAPP is currently considered the most amyloidogenic peptide known, but the molecular bases of its aggregation are still incompletely(More)
The equilibrium unfolding of dimeric yeast glutathione reductase (GR) by guanidine hydrochloride (GdnHCl) was investigated. Unfolding was monitored by a variety of techniques, including intrinsic fluorescence emission, anisotropy and iodide quenching measurements, far-ultraviolet circular dichroism and thiol reactivity measurements. At 1 M GdnHCl, one thiol(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent type of dementia, has been associated with the accumulation of amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) in the central nervous system. AβOs vary widely in size, ranging from dimers to larger than 100 kDa. Evidence indicates that not all oligomers are toxic, and there is yet no consensus on the size of the actual toxic(More)
Accumulation of trehalose has been implicated in the tolerance of yeast cells to several forms of stress, including heat-shock and high ethanol levels. However, yeast lacking trehalase, the enzyme that degrades trehalose, exhibit poor survival after exposure to stress conditions. This suggests that optimal cell viability also depends on the capacity to(More)
Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) controls growth and differentiation of hematopoietic cells. Previous reports have indicated that the mitogenic activity of GM-CSF may be modulated by the glycosidic moiety of proteoglycans associated with the membrane of stromal cells. In this work, we have performed in vitro studies of the(More)
The biological activity of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) is modulated by the sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) heparan sulfate and heparin. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in such interactions are still not completely understood. We have proposed previously that helix C, one of the four alpha-helices of human GM-CSF(More)