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Soluble amyloid β-peptide oligomers (AβOs), increasingly recognized as causative agents of Alzheimer's disease (AD), disrupt neuronal Ca(2+) homeostasis and synaptic function. Here, we report that AβOs at sublethal concentrations generate prolonged Ca(2+) signals in primary hippocampal neurons; incubation in Ca(2+)-free solutions, inhibition of ryanodine(More)
Brain accumulation of soluble amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs) has been implicated in synapse failure and cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, whether and how oligomers of different sizes induce synapse dysfunction is a matter of controversy. Here, we report that low-molecular-weight (LMW) and high-molecular-weight (HMW) Aβ oligomers(More)
Protein aggregation and amyloid accumulation in different tissues are associated with cellular dysfunction and toxicity in important human pathologies, including Alzheimer's disease and various forms of systemic amyloidosis. Soluble oligomers formed at the early stages of protein aggregation have been increasingly recognized as the main toxic species in(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most prevalent type of dementia, has been associated with the accumulation of amyloid β oligomers (AβOs) in the central nervous system. AβOs vary widely in size, ranging from dimers to larger than 100 kDa. Evidence indicates that not all oligomers are toxic, and there is yet no consensus on the size of the actual toxic(More)
Amyloid β42 self-assembly is complex, with multiple pathways leading to large insoluble fibrils or soluble oligomers. Oligomers are now regarded as most germane to Alzheimer's pathogenesis. We have investigated the hypothesis that oligomer formation itself occurs through alternative pathways, with some leading to synapse-binding toxins. Immediately after(More)
2,4-Dinitrophenol (DNP) is classically known as a mitochondrial uncoupler and, at high concentrations, is toxic to a variety of cells. However, it has recently been shown that, at subtoxic concentrations, DNP protects neurons against a variety of insults and promotes neuronal differentiation and neuritogenesis. The molecular and cellular mechanisms(More)
The normal function of the mammalian brain is regulated by complex networks of interactions between cells and molecules, which are to a considerable extent dependent on mechanisms of transcriptional regulation. Disruption of such interactions by neurotoxic stimuli may lead to severe forms of dementia and to other neuropsychiatric disorders. Therefore,(More)
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