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The beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) gene of the mouse was disrupted by inserting into exon 2 a cassette containing a neomycin resistance gene and a putative transcription termination sequence. Contrary to expectation, brain and other tissues from mice homozygous for the insertion still contained beta APP-specific RNA, albeit at a level 5- to(More)
We designed a protocol to improve the immunohistochemical analysis of human brain structures, which overcomes the limited detection sensitivity, high background, and intense autofluorescence commonly associated with human tissue. This procedure was evaluated by using antibodies against major GABAA receptor subunits (alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, gamma2) in(More)
Recent reports indicate that a growing number of intracellular proteins are not only prone to pathological aggregation but can also be released and "infect" neighboring cells. Therefore, many complex diseases may obey a simple model of propagation where the penetration of seeds into hosts determines spatial spread and disease progression. We term these(More)
The physiological role of prion protein (PrP) remains unknown. Mice devoid of PrP develop normally but are resistant to scrapie; introduction of a PrP transgene restores susceptibility to the disease. To identify the regions of PrP necessary for this activity, we prepared PrP knockout mice expressing PrPs with amino-proximal deletions. Surprisingly, PrP(More)
Peripheral myelin protein PMP22 has been suggested to have a role in peripheral nerve myelination and cell proliferation. Defects at the PMP22 locus are associated with peripheral neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. We now demonstrate that mice devoid of Pmp22 are retarded in the onset of myelination and develop abundant sausage-like(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) involved in Alzheimer's disease is a member of a larger gene family including amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. We generated and examined the phenotypes of mice lacking individual or all possible combinations of APP family members to assess potential functional redundancies within the gene family. Mice(More)
Because of species selectivity, HIV research is largely restricted to in vitro or clinical studies, both limited in their ability to rapidly assess new strategies to fight the virus. To prospectively study some aspects of HIV in vivo, immunodeficient mice, transplanted with either human peripheral blood leukocytes or human fetal tissues, have been(More)
Microglia are resident immune cells in the brain and spinal cord. These cells provide immune surveillance and are mobilized in response to disparate diseases and injuries. Although microglial activation is often considered neurotoxic, microglia are essential defenders against many neurodegenerative diseases. It also seems increasingly likely that microglial(More)
An intrachromosomal duplication containing the PMP22 gene is associated with the human hereditary peripheral neuropathy Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A, and PMP22 overexpression as a consequence of increased PMP22 gene dosage has been suggested as causative event in this frequent disorder of peripheral nerves. We have generated transgenic mice that(More)
Prions have been responsible for an entire century of tragic episodes. Fifty years ago, kuru decimated the population of Papua New Guinea. Then, iatrogenic transmission of prions caused more than 250 cases of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. More recently, transmission of bovine spongiform encephalopathy to humans caused a widespread health scare. On the other(More)