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The 'protein only' hypothesis postulates that the prion, the agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, is PrP(Sc), an isoform of the host protein PrP(C). Protease treatment of prion preparations cleaves off approximately 60 N-terminal residues of PrP(Sc) but does not abrogate infectivity. Disruption of the PrP gene in the mouse abolishes(More)
Nerve injury triggers numerous changes in the injured neurons and surrounding nonneuronal cells that ultimately result in successful target reinnervation or cell death. c-Jun is a component of the heterodimeric AP-1 transcription factor, and c-Jun is highly expressed in response to neuronal trauma. Here we have investigated the role of c-jun during axonal(More)
Limb muscles develop from cells that migrate from the somites. The signal that induces migration of myogenic precursor cells to the limb emanates from the mesenchyme of the limb bud. Here we report that the c-met-encoded receptor tyrosine kinase is essential for migration of myogenic precursor cells into the limb anlage and for migration into diaphragm and(More)
Accumulation of the prion protein PrPSc, a pathological and protease-resistant isoform of the normal host protein PrPC, is a feature of prion disease such as scrapie. It is still unknown whether scrapie pathology comes about by neurotoxicity of PrPSc, acute depletion of PrPC, or some other mechanism. Here we investigate this question by grafting neural(More)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is associated with impaired inhibitory neurotransmission. Studies in animal models suggest that GABA(A) receptor dysfunction contributes to epileptogenesis. To understand the mechanisms underlying TLE in humans, it is fundamental to determine whether and how GABA(A) receptor subtypes are altered. Furthermore, identifying novel(More)
We designed a protocol to improve the immunohistochemical analysis of human brain structures, which overcomes the limited detection sensitivity, high background, and intense autofluorescence commonly associated with human tissue. This procedure was evaluated by using antibodies against major GABAA receptor subunits (alpha1, alpha2, alpha3, gamma2) in(More)
The beta-amyloid precursor protein (beta APP) gene of the mouse was disrupted by inserting into exon 2 a cassette containing a neomycin resistance gene and a putative transcription termination sequence. Contrary to expectation, brain and other tissues from mice homozygous for the insertion still contained beta APP-specific RNA, albeit at a level 5- to(More)
Peripheral myelin protein PMP22 has been suggested to have a role in peripheral nerve myelination and cell proliferation. Defects at the PMP22 locus are associated with peripheral neuropathies such as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. We now demonstrate that mice devoid of Pmp22 are retarded in the onset of myelination and develop abundant sausage-like(More)
The protein-only hypothesis posits that the infectious agent causing transmissible spongiform encephalopathies consists of protein and lacks any informational nucleic acids. This agent, termed prion by Stanley Prusiner, is thought to consist partly of PrP(Sc), a conformational isoform of a normal cellular protein termed PrP(C). Scientists and lay persons(More)
The amyloid precursor protein (APP) involved in Alzheimer's disease is a member of a larger gene family including amyloid precursor-like proteins APLP1 and APLP2. We generated and examined the phenotypes of mice lacking individual or all possible combinations of APP family members to assess potential functional redundancies within the gene family. Mice(More)