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Current understanding of hypospadias: relevance of animal models
- G. Cunha, Adriane Sinclair, G. Risbridger, J. Hutson, L. Baskin
- MedicineNature Reviews Urology
- 1 May 2015
Rat and mouse models of hyPOSpadias are crucial to the understanding of hypospadias to ultimately reduce its incidence through better preventive strategies.
Canalization of the urethral plate precedes fusion of the urethral folds during male penile urethral development: the double zipper hypothesis.
Contrasting mechanisms of penile urethral formation in mouse and human.
Prenatal diethylstilbestrol induces malformation of the external genitalia of male and female mice and persistent second-generation developmental abnormalities of the external genitalia in two mouse…
Analysis of the effect of estrogen/androgen perturbation on penile development in transgenic and diethylstilbestrol‐Treated mice
It is demonstrated that formation of the urethal orifice and internal prepuce is due to fusion of separate epithelial‐surfaced mesenchymal elements, a process dependent upon both androgen and estrogen signaling, in which ERβ signaling is strongly implicated.
Development of the human penis and clitoris.
Canalization of the Vestibular Plate in the Absence of Urethral Fusion Characterizes Development of the Human Clitoris: The Single Zipper Hypothesis.
Human glans and preputial development.
Complex epithelial remodeling underlie the fusion event in early fetal development of the human penile urethra.